The aim of this paper is to study and investigate the improvement of government accounting and financial reporting in Iraq (GAFMR), and then apply a theoretical model to explore accounting reform in the public sector model developed by (Luder 1992). Improving the structure of accounting and financial reporting for the public sector was reformed by previous researchers such as (Christensen 2002; Godfrey, Devlin & Merrouche 1996; Oliorilanto 2008; Saleh, 2007; Yamamoto 1999). The practice of the model allows the Accounting Board to integrate as well as to study a framework that theorises multifaceted internal and external factors, manipulating accounting adjustments and factors that can be barriers to and implementers of reform in Iraq. Recent years have seen improvements in terms of accuracy, accountability and integrity in some areas of Iraqi governmental accounting and financial reporting, but the Iraqi government still prepares their accounts on a cash-based accounting system rather than accrual-based accounting system. There are still calls from international organisations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Accounting bodies to adopt International Accounting Standards such as International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS), to significantly improve government transparency and accountability as a means towards financial sustainability.