ENTREPRENEURSHIP PROSOECTS OF AQUACULTURE FOR FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, EMPOWERMENT AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA (Review Completed - Accepted)
Aquaculture (fish farm) has been identified and proffered here as a veritable and sustainable tool that can be used to accomplish (or at least promote) development , empowerment and alleviating poverty amongst the unemployed. A great majority of Nigerian youths and women are poor and seriously need to be financially empowered. The unfortunate negligence and subjugation of this group of people in Nigeria by past governments over the years, were highlighted. Training of the individuals in aquaculture may involve private experts in fish farming, or the government. It is recommended that the fish farm project for each participating, person be one that comprised 10 hart fish tanks to accommodate 4000 fingerlings using the flow through system. A group project can involve 500 youths and 500 women at a time across the country. The cost of the programme, proposed (to run initially for 3yrs) would be up to 6,000,000.000 naira for each participant(about $37,500) and the financial return within the period is more than 15,000,000.00($93,750). The possible sources of funding or recoverable grant/soft loan are the federal and state governments, multinational companies, public spirited individuals, SURE-P, YEP UNDP and others listed. The need to involve professionals in fish production and financial experts, to monitor and implement this program successfully is strongly advocated. Aquaculture is highly recommended as an entrepreneurship tool to financially develop and empower the poor in Nigeria as it has great potentials to adequately accomplish this
The Analysis and Applicability of Cognitive Theories in Solving Inconsistency among Cognitive Elements (Published)
This paper critically analyses the major theoretical and empirical body of knowledge of the various schools of thought of cognitive consistency with a view of proffering a tripartite approach (involving the consumers, the organizations and the government) to solving inconsistency among cognitive elements (e.g., values, beliefs, knowledge and attitudes). The Heider’s balance theory, Osgood’s congruity model and Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory were specifically looked into and assessed in terms of their real world application and/or empirical fertility. Each of these theorists emphasizes psychological tension and the urge to achieving consistency within and between the cognitive system and overt/covert behaviour.
The struggle for cultural supremacy is not only a fact of history but also an observable phenomenon of social existence. Perhaps, the frenzied defence of cultural identity is second only to the expression of territorial nationalism. Contemporary cultures of which Islam is a resilient part are engaged in a ceaseless war of survival. Following the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Centre in New York, Islam has come under intense scrutiny. What has followed is a feverish commitment to the obliteration of Islamic values at home and abroad and the intensification of the scheme to enthrone western culture. This raises many legal, constitutional and sociological questions as well as questions relating to the place of Islamic culture both on the international arena and within the Nigerian jurisdiction. The paper is dedicated both to defining the place of Islamic culture vis-a-vis freedom of conscience and the constitutional safeguards in place against the prejudices that confront Islamic civilisation.