The Relationship between Government Expenditure, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria (Published)
This study examines the relationship between government expenditure, economic growth and poverty reduction in Nigeria using time series data over the period 1980-2013. Employing modern time series econometric techniques such as unit root tests, bound test co-integration approach and error correction techniques within an ARDL framework which yields more robust estimates.It is found that government spending affect economic growth positively and significantly by increasing real private investment and fixed capital accumulation which increase capital accumulation, reduction in current account deficit, external debt burden and improve education/skills of the households by improving human capital. Findings emerge from this study that government expenditure has significant short run impact on poverty reductions in its lag form in which it might be examined by the role of fiscal policy in alleviating poverty of current year in Nigeria.The study suggested policies the role of government should be extended to ensure the magnitude and the quality of private investment as high as possible.
This study empirically examines the long-run and short-run relationship between government expenditure and Economic growth in Tanzania over the period of 1996-2014 making the use of annual secondary time series data. The Error Correcting Model (ECM) is employed to examine the long-run and short-run estimates of parameters. In addition to that the granger causality test is employed to determine whether government expenditures granger causes economic growth. In the long-run government expenditure is found to be statistically significant and has positive relationship with economic growth. The short -run estimates show there is no significant relationship between government expenditures and economic growth. The results of granger causality test show uni-directional causality running from economic growth to government expenditures. The government of Tanzania should improve in the allocation of resources in its development expenditure and social services expenditure and channel such expenditure to allow for private sector participation and infrastructure development in order to accelerate economic growth.
This study examines the logical relationship between Agriculture Production and Government Expenditure in Nepal. The empirical research has applied Cochrane-Orcutt auto-regressive model from panel data for the period 1983/84 to 2013/14. In this regard, The empirical evidence confirm that the expenditure in agriculture sector is the causes of economic growth in Nepal. More specifically, iteration five gives the D-W value is 1.697 to compared tabulated dL , dU values are 1.284 and 1.567 at the two independent variables. The D -W value lies between dU and 4-dU, where this is nearest to 2.Sothat, there is no auto-correlation among error terms. Fact finding to shows that, the checking results homogeneous with theory and healthy and strong of the conclusion.
The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of the Nigerian tax policy on the ability of local governments to raise and spend money in discharge of their statutory responsibilities. The investigation was prompted by the fact that local governments seem to be carried away by the euphoria of the periodical statutory allocations from the Federation Account to the extent that they are blinded towards the potential of fiscal operations that would make them less dependent on the statutory allocations. The study therefore re-awakens the senses of local government administrators to the need to exploit more efficiently the opportunities that come with the recent national tax policy. The study is anchored on the Decentralization Theory as postulated by Richard Musgrave (1959) cited in Arowolo (2011). The study adopted a descriptive approach. The secondary data were analysed by means of Ordinary Least Square regression and by employing the Chow Test of structural stability it was established that the tax policy which came into operation in January 2010 has a significant impact on the fiscal operation of local governments in Imo State. Furthermore, the study found that the tax policy had a significant positive effect on the expenditure of local governments, for instance, for Owerri-Municipal Local Government, a unit increase in tax revenue brought about one million naira increase in total expenditure of the local government. It was also found that the tax policy improved the ability of local governments to raise revenue through various forms of taxes. Hence local governments would fare better when they fully avail themselves to the opportunities within the tax policy which make fiscal operations easier and more efficient. The implication of the result is that if local governments do not become enthusiastic in exploiting the benefits of the tax policy, they will remain inefficient in the discharge of their statutory functions. The study therefore recommends among others, that local government authorities should be more proactive in the business of fiscal operation by setting targets on the level of tax revenue to be realized within a particular period and reviewing same periodically.
The main focus of this study is to investigate the impact of economic growth on government expenditure in Nigeria covering the periods 1970 to 2013. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was used as a proxy for economic growth, and the GDP time series was decomposed using the partial sum approach in order to achieve asymmetry in the variable. The asymmetric ARDL estimation technique was appropriately employed in this study. The findings of this study revealed that economic growth has significant impact on government expenditure in Nigeria. The study further provided evidence of bi-causality between expansion in economic growth (GDP_P) and government expenditure in Nigeria. The study recommended among others that proactive steps must be taken by governments to stimulate economic growth through production.
Impact of Fiscal Policy on the Manufacturing Sector Output in Nigeria: An Error Correction Analysis (Published)
There has been a growing concern on the role of fiscal policy on the output and input of manufacturing industry in Nigeria, despite the fact that the government had embarked on several policies aimed at improving the growth of Nigerian economy through the contribution of manufacturing industry to the economy and capacity utilization of the sector. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of fiscal policy on the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria. Empirical evidence from the developed and developing economies has shown that fiscal and monetary policies have the capacity to influence the entire economy if it is well managed. An ex-post facto design (quantitative research design) was used to carry out this study. The results of the study indicate that government expenditure significantly affect manufacturing sector output based on the magnitude and the level of significance of the coefficient and p-value and there is a long-run relationship between fiscal policy and manufacturing sector output. The implication of this finding is that if government did not increase public expenditure and its implementation, Nigerian manufacturing sector output will not generate a corresponding increase in the growth of Nigerian economy. It is the recommendation of researcher that the expansionary fiscal policies should be encouraged as they play vital role for the growth of the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria; that fiscal policy should be given more priority attention towards the manufacturing sector by increasing the level of budget implementation, which will enhance aggregate spending in the economy; and consistent government implementation will contribute to the increase performance of manufacturing sector.