This study is to examine the good governance and personal income tax compliance in Nigeria and study basically adopt the survey research design in which structured questionnaire is designed and distributed to the respondents as a means of gathering information. population of this study comprises of all the staff of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria and the total number of staff as at 31st December, 2020 is one thousand four hundred and fifty (1450). The classes of personnel to be administered with the questionnaire include senior staff, junior staff and the management staff. Because of the sensitive nature of the study, and to ensure a credible and reliable data, the population cuts across all categories of workers. with the sample size of 314, a multiple regression model is specified in equation (i). This multiple regression econometric models explain the variation in the values of the dependent variable (Personal Income Tax Compliance) on the basis of change in other independent variables (Perception of tax payer of a good governance, Tax fairness). Panel Least Square (PLS) regression technique was used for the study. It was discovered that there is significant relationship between tax fairness and personal income tax in Nigeria and also there are perceptions of tax payers towards good governance and personal income tax compliance in the country. Specifically, tax fairness enhances the personal income tax compliance among the sampled respondents and perception tax payer of a good governance contribute significantly to the personal income tax compliance. The study concluded that if tax fairness is well enhanced, tax payer will be highly interested in paying their personal income tax. The problem of lack of compliance is common among the informal sector who often bear the brunt of the bad governance. It is obvious that tax compliance will increase if good governance can be perceived by the people. Respondents are ready to comply with the law but the revenue collected must be judiciously used.
The study examined the Effect of the EndSars Protest on the Nigerian economy; with specific set objectives to find out the causes of the EndSars protest in Nigeria; ascertain the effect of the EndSars protest in Nigeria and proffer possible solutions to the causes of the EndSars protest in Nigeria. The study adopted the structural-functionalist theory and used the survey research method given the work coverage. Thus, the method of study was qualitative. Data were generated from secondary sources which included journal articles, news papers and other online sources. Literature review however shows that, SARS is notorious for its brutality and human rights abuses and the lack of accountability for their actions while the Nigerian economy suffered huge losses of billions of naira resulting from the protest. The Police Act, which was adopted in 1943, has broad discretionary powers in the hands of police officers,making the abuse of power possible. The study concludes that, EndSars protest has left memories not just on the Nigerian people and her economy but on the global community on issues of police brutality in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that, state governments, in collaboration with security agencies and other stakeholders (Civil Society Organizations and traditional/religious institutions)should create avenues for interaction with the general populace and listen to the millions of voices calling for police reform; there should be great transformations in relationships between the police and communities and the Federal and State Governments should invest in youth employment to create sustainable economic opportunities foryoung people in the country thereby, growing the economy.
Communal participation has been a collective and progressive impetus for societal development since medieval era while popular representation is one of the indispensable pillars of good governance in modern times. The study examined the impact of communal participation on good governance in Bomadi and Patani local government areas of Delta State, Nigeria. The study investigated the practise of communal participation in the communities and wards, the extent of participation in local government affairs and the leadership style that encourages participation or representation of community members in the local government councils. Data were generated from both primary and secondary sources. Samples of 200 respondents were interviewed through the administration of questionnaire designed according to 5-point Likert scale of strongly agreed (SA) to strongly disagree (SDA). Demographic data were collected and analysed by tables of frequency and percentage. The measures of central tendency such as the mean and standard deviation were employed to analyse the three objectives adopting mean of 2.50 as agree (A) or acceptable criterion at (0.05) level of significance. Findings revealed that there was appreciable level of communal participation and representation in the two local government areas. The study recommended that, a more pragmatic involvement of community leaders in decision making, projects initiation, planning and execution be adequately demonstrated. This should be carried out through regular town hall meetings with community leaders and mass media sensitization to enhance good governance at the grassroots level.
Exploring The Role and Challenges of Ethical Values to impart Good Governance: The Case of Dessie Town, South Wollo, Ethiopia (Published)
The objectives of the study was to assess the role and challenge of realizing ethical values in promoting good governance. For this study the data was gathered from both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources of information was gathered through questionnaire and interviews whereas secondary data gathered from different types of documentaries, published materials and internet websites resources. The gathered data were analyzed and interpreted by using tables and percentages. As the study revealed, the overall objective of good governance is to ensure good conduct with the concern for values, practices and behavior. These values are inculcated in an individual by his/her parents, teachers, religion, society and the environmental of work place. The essential duty of governance principles is to effectively and equitably implement ethical values of the society. Hence, it demands highly competent, well administration, participatory and good deal of sound policy formulation and distinct citizen orientation. The promotion of ethical values in good governance implies legality of government action; rationality in policy and decision making; evolving a sense of responsibility; creating excellence; facilitating spirit of individual and organizational goals; developing responsiveness; protecting the national interests; and bringing and elevating integrity. The study identified the role and challenge of realizing ethical values in promoting good governance in Dessie Town. It is recommended by the researcher that the officials and religious institutions must give high consideration to ethical values and principles for realization of good governance in the study area.
The paper titled “Restructuring Resolving the National Question in Nigeria” x-rays the challenges befacing the country in the quest for national unity and integration. The study using content analysis and qualitative research through adoption of secondary data and oral interview found amongst others the divergent and often contradictory opinions of Nigerian elites on wide range of issues such as national structure, fiscal federation, national security to mention but few. The primordial character of the ruling class, poor governance at all levels as well as selfish disposition of elites as largely responsible for the loud demand for restructuring. The study therefore concludes that the centrifugal tendencies of Nigerian ruling class is responsible for the outcry for restructuring. The study recommended amongst others the strengthening of institutions and governance mechanisms and behavioural modifications of Nigerians.
Human rights and good governance are the salient elements of a well-functioning state and society. They are also mutually reinforced; for human rights principles provide a set of values to guide the work of government and other political and social actors. Good governance on the other hand is a key to sustainable development and without good governance human rights cannot be respected in a sustainable manner. The three concepts thus work hand in hand. However in countries like Nigeria where democracy and rule of law have not been fully nurtured the move towards implementing human rights and good governance principles into the daily functioning of state institutions can be a huge challenge. The probability that a nation will achieve the aims of sustainable development and participative democracy are all the greater if human rights are respected. The aim of this article is to ascertain the level of observance of respect of the human rights in Nigeria by the government authorities and other social actors and the impact such observance or otherwise has on governance and development in Nigeria. It is observed that though the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as amended) makes an elaborate provision on human right, and that Nigeria has acceded to numerous international instruments on human rights, the problem of bad governance with the resultant inadequate development has a link with failure of the authorities that be, to adequately appreciate the requirements of human rights and apply them in governance. Furthermore a lot of the basic human rights as contained in Chapter II of the Nigerian Constitution are not enforceable, thus failure of the authorities to observe them cannot be questioned. It is advocated.
The Role of Magico-Spiritual Powers in Understanding the Culture of Impunity and Lack of Transparency in Nigerian Politics (Published)
The culture of impunity and lack of accountability on the part of the Nigerian politician is simply incredible. While democratic tenets, the world over, presuppose uncompromising observance of the rule of law, accountability and transparency, the Nigerian experience stands as classical case of irony and paradox. Thus, it deserves much more than a cursory interrogation, but an in-depth study. In order to understand the Nigerian situation, many researches have been carried out. Their conclusions point out corruption, weak institutional and legal framework, ethno-religious bias and inclinations as well as lack of free, fair and credible elections as factors responsible for the current state of affairs. However, the believe and indeed the practice of the Nigerian politician to indulge (almost incurably) in magico-spiritual activities in order to invoke powers that will enable them evade justice, mute public scrutiny and veil their culture of impunity and lack of transparency has received little or no deserving scholarly attention. Therefore, this paper examines this phenomenon and its impact on the body polity. Politicians and their allies, members of election petition tribunals, personnel of anti-graft agencies and magico-spiritual jobbers themselves attest to the endemic nature of the phenomenon. Interviews with these constitute primary source for this paper. Laced in segments of this paper are suggestions on how to put the practice of magico-spiritualism on the proper cause that will not be on a coalition part with democracy and good governance in Nigeria.
Despite widespread democratization in most countries and the struggle by the feminist movements for the integration of gender balancing in the national politics of countries over the world however, women who constitute about 50% of Nigeria population still remain systematically alienated from politics and decision, making process in the country. Poor systems of governance result in widespread discrimination related to sex, race, colour, religion and political opinion. This paper tries to points out the efficacy and the role of gender equality and participation in good governance which has a trickling down effect on development. The study adopted qualitative research and documentary method of data collection. Its revealed a positive correction between gender, good governance and development in Nigeria, hence the need for it and its application. Also, women who constitute about 50% of Nigeria population still remain systematically alienated from politics and decision, making process in the country. It recommended among others that government should engage the support of the mass media and partner with women’s movement NGOs and Civil society for vehement complaint against women subordination, discrimination and stigmatization in the society.
This paper evaluates the impact of good governance on rural development in Niger State. The problem investigated is stimulated by the expectation of the people for good governance in democratic era. The specific objective of the study include determining the extent to which the government archived the tenets of good governance, finding out the impact of good governance on rural development and examining the constraints of good governance in achieving rural development. Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources using the instrument of observation, questionnaire, published and unpublished material as well as the internet. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive tools used include tables and simple percentages while the inferential tool used is the spearman rank correlations. The study revealed that, good governance has not provided rural development. More specifically, there is low service delivery, low rate of adherence to rule of law, lack of transparency and accountability, existence of high rural poverty, decay in rural educational system, inadequate water and road infrastructure as well as inadequate health facilities. The study also revealed poverty, corruption, poor judicial system, need for excess wealth as constraints for good governance. It was therefore recommended that, there should be institution of integrity, transparency and accountability in governance, there should be improvement in social services and there should be measures to check misgovernance and mismanagement.
The triumph of the democratic order in Africa will depend to a large extent on the capacity of stakeholders to tackle the ravages of corruption. Across the continent, the quest for economic and political development had been hampered by corruption on the part of the leaders and followers, thus making the democratic enterprise appear as condemned to being subverted, as it turns out, from within. The scourge appears intractable due to its prevalence, thus, encumbering most States in the continent. For decades, Nigeria’s has been performing below average in the transparency international index of corruption. At some point, Nigeria was oscillating between the first and second most corrupt nation in the world. This unenviable status continues to assert negatively on the State and the growth of democracy despite the several strategies put in place by past and previous regimes to combat the scourge. This paper therefore considers the hindrances of corruption to the development of the democratic order and explores the imperative of good governance in remedying the malaise.
Challenges and Prospects of Good Governance in Reduction of Poverty: A Case Study of Buee Town 01 Kebele, Ethiopia (Published)
This research paper contains challenges and prospects of good governance in Buee town 01 Kebele, Ethiopia. At recent time the different definition of the term of good governance given by various international organizations and an attempt has been made to explain in detail the meaning, element and characteristics of good governance. Hence, the principles indicators of poverty reduction need to begin by looking at improvement of the standards of living of people given human needs fundamentals. This research paper used to follow the necessary procedure orderly written by designing background, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study and also used different research design and methodology of the study such as data source that includes primary and secondary source of data and sampling techniques, method of data collection. The major findings are concluded, lack of community participation in plant preparation, discontinuity of public utility, lack of efficient and effective service delivery to the community, lack of competent work force between the community, the Kebele’s manager is not elected by community and the concerned body is not created awareness to the community with the concept and elements of good governance that contribute in reduction of poverty. The researcher believes that reduction of poverty need the existence of practical of good governance more. The conclusions and recommendations have been put in brief manner.
Governance has become so vast and complex that the government of the people, for the people and by the people has become the government of the people, by the government and for the people. The logic behind the idea of governance supports the development of political and administrative structures that offer the potentials for political stability and national development. Public servant in this regard plays significant role for the successful achievement of good governance. This study is expected to explain the relationship between politicians, public servants and good governance while it further revealed the efficiency of the application of the law in force, the efficacy of the decisions made by government, and the political responsibility and accountability of elected officials in relation to the demand expressed by civil society. The study is qualitative in nature, as it based its theoretical framework on structural functionalism. It submits that there is need for full respect for citizen’s rights as the public service is a major change agent in Nigeria’s quest for enhanced progress, hence the on-going reformation of the Nigerian public service is in line to achieve the purpose of good governance and deal with the challenges therein.
The Governance of Tin Mining in Bangka-Belitung Archipelago Province (From Perspective of Good Governance) (Published)
The objective of this research is the governance of tin mining which has not given the prosperity effect in Bangka-Belitung Archipelago Province. The tin mining is held without certainty and it is illegal. The governance of tin mining problem was analyzed with qualitative method. Data collecting was held by interview, documentation study and observation with the stakeholders who are relevant to this research as the key informants. The conclusion showed that the governance of thin mining has not given the optimal prosperity effect. It is caused by the lack of synergy among the local government, private entrepreneurs, inhabitant and no legislation synchronization. The stakeholders still have orientation with economy. In this case, the government targeted the Original Area Income from mining sector. Entrepreneurs and inhabitant oriented to look for advantages as much as possible. Meanwhile, the governance unsure of the governance implementation in tin mining sector is still low at accountability, transparency, participation, law enforcement, eradication corruption, poverty reduction, an insight into the future, orientation deal, and decentralization, so it needs the synergy of the stakeholders like local government, private, inhabitant and experts association and the partnership between PT. Timah or private company with inhabitant has to be set.
With increasing pressure from the Breton woods and other international donor organizations for African states to move towards good governance, some of these countries including Cameroon are gradually attempting to institute reforms towards the attainment of these goals. Apart from instituting reforms that will grant free political participation, the government of Cameroon has also come up with the policy of regional balance that is intended to ensure a kind of equality in the distribution of what is commonly referred to as the National Cake. It is important to note that Cameroon is very diverse in terms of Ethnic nationalities and there is a gross disparity amongst these nationalities in terms of the natural distribution of resources. Some of the regions are naturally richer than others in terms of natural potentials and the government in her quest for good governance has come up with the theory of regional balance to guarantee fairness in the distribution of these resources. The paper is aimed at examining the perception of good governance in Cameroon and whether these perceptions actually match the practical implementation of this concept. The study equally looks at the instruments of good governance and the progress that has been attained since the introduction of the concept of good governance. The tenets of good governance, its features and the major obstacles to its application constitute the main trust of this research work. With regards to methodology, this study adopts a kind of inter-disciplinary design given that the study cuts across issues of geography, resource allocation and management, state policy and balanced development put in historical perspective. A qualitative instrument of analysis was adopted to give a critical insight to issues of governance in the society under study. In doing this a serious dichotomy is drawn between the perception of this policy and its practical application on ground.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT, GOOD GOVERNANCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF EMOHUA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE (2001-2012) (Published)
The study seeks to examine Local Government, Good Governance and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Case Study of Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State (2001-2012). A sample of 400 respondents from 14 wards of Emohua Local Government Area in Rivers State was studied. Out of the 400 copies of questionnaire administered, 387 copies were retrieved and after going through them 381 copies (i.e. 95% response rate) were found useful for data analysis. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) was used to test the hypotheses. The study identified the key problems affecting good governance, sustainable development and the economic empowerment of the people in local government areas in Nigeria; to include: Lack of funds to execute local government programmes, Lack of employment opportunities, Bribery and corruption / incompetence, lack of transparency and accountability, lack of planning for Good Governance / public objectives, non-government co-operation on socio- economic issues for the citizenry / decisions poor capacity utilization. Indeed there is still loud yearning for good governance at the local government level. From this study it is evident and conclusive that: Good governance promotes sustainable development in Emohua Local Government Area, Good Governance encourages the economic empowerment of the people in local government areas. The study therefore recommends that: Instead of direct sharing or transfer of cash, local government should embark on programmes that can empower local citizenry. Equally, the controlling state governments should show good example in transparency and accountability to local political leaders. This will minimize corruption at local level. Finally, State governments should also desist from hijacking the functions of local government. It is by allowing local political leaders to discharge these functions while in office that they can master the ropes of governance.
Nigeria is a plural society. By this is meant the country is a melting pot of ethnic nationalities, class, regions, religions and other socio-cultural markers. Its pluralism has shaped and continued to manifest in its politics. The political class, in collaboration with their religious counterparts has exploited ethnicity and religion as symbols of mobilization and instrument of negotiation for patronages and sharing of national resources. Thus, most conflicts which ordinarily could have been seen as distribution based had assumed ethnic and religious character. These conflicts are virulent and had caused destruction of lives and property of innocent Nigerians. The conflicts have also undermined the peaceful coexistence among the Nigerian peoples, thus scuttling the integration efforts of the country. This study Is both interrogative analytical. It is interrogative to the extent that it searches for the causes of ethno-religious conflicts in the country. The study is also analytical in the sense that it explains from the frog’s eye view, the variables responsible for those interminable conflicts.The study concludes that the failure of the Nigerian political elite to establish good governance, forge national unity and promote economic development is at the base of communal, ethnic and religious conflicts in the country. The study opines that the country might suffer disintegration if this trend persists, especially with the internecine Boko-Haram insurgency and the perennial settler-indigene conflicts in the Middle-belt, that is, Plateau and Benue sections of the country
The centrality of power in any political setting is axiomatic. Small wonder or no wonder capturing it has almost become a do or die affairs. It is incontrovertible that the nationalist struggle was not a power tussle among Nigerians but rather between Nigerians and the British colonialists. However, towards the twilight of independence, Nigeria’s political terrain has been fraught with rabid competition for power even up till now. While in other climes, leadership position to a reasonable extent is tied mainly to performance criteria, in Nigeria, it is laced with economic and ethnic connotations. The above scenario has become a perennial as well as recurring decimal in Nigeria. The corollary is the furore surrounding the 2015 general elections. The power melodrama pundits argue if not well managed can have serious implication for democratic consolidation particularly as the country approaches another election year. The paper affirmed that power sharing or rotational presidency lacks legitimacy. It assessed the federal character principle as enshrined in the 1999 constitution of Nigeria. The work examined the hurdles to 2015 general elections. It concluded by proposing some policy options while relying on secondary source of data.
Palestinian Dilemma, Tutelage, Guardianship, Nationalism, Sovereignty. (Review Completed - Accepted)
The study seeks to examine Local Government and Good Governance in Nigeria: A Case Study of Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, (2004-2007). A sample of 400 respondents from 14 wards of Emohua Local Government Area in Rivers State, Nigeria was studied. Out of the 400 copies of questionnaire administered, 387 copies were retrieved and after going through them, 381 copies (i.e. 95% response rate) were found useful for data analysis. The study has identified the key problems affecting good governance, sustainable development and the economic empowerment of the people in local government areas in Nigeria; they include: Lack of funds to execute local government programmes, Lack of employment opportunities, Bribery and corruption / incompetence, lack of transparency and accountability, lack of planning for Good Governance / public objectives, non government co-operation on socio- economic issues for the citizenry / decisions poor capacity utilization. The attainment of good governance in Nigeria under the current democratic dispensation is a joint endeavour of the governmental tripod; Federal, State and Local governments. Local government has come a long way in the country. However, it is observable that local governments in the country are hardly effective and efficient. Indeed there is still loud yearning for good governance at the local government level. The study therefore recommends that: Instead of direct sharing or transfer of cash, local government should embark on programmes that can empower local citizenry. Equally, the controlling state governments should show good example in transparency and accountability to local political leaders. This will minimize corruption at local level. Finally, State governments should also desist from hijacking the functions of local government. It is by allowing local political leaders to discharge these functions while in office that they can master the ropes of governance.
The need to build a good working relationship between the executive and the legislature in both presidential and parliamentary system of government is germane to this study. The paper opines that the agenda of socio-economic and political development, growth and sustainability is contingent on the system of government in operation. The paper attempts to highlight the basic characteristics of both presidential and parliamentary system of government for better appreciation and understanding of the discourse under review. Of particular importance in this study is the fact that a contention about which system of government among the two is best is to beg the question. The centrality of the argument however tilts towards partiamentarism, which the author has practically refuted as being mundane and baseless. The argument here is that the workings of a system is not a function of the coloration of the system in operation; but the general behavioural repertoire of political actors in positions of authority. The political entity could therefore work well or marred depending on the parametres of rulership idiosyncrasies in place at any point in time. The paper ends up with concluding remarks and suggestions for effectice future governance in Nigeria.