BIODEGRADATION OF GLYPHOSATE BY FUNGAL STRAINS ISOLATED FROM HERBICIDES POLLUTED-SOILS IN RIYADH AREA (Published)
Forty-five fungal isolates were isolated from eleven cultivated soil farms (Riyadh and Karj area, KSA) after enrichment with Mineral Salt Media (MSM) supplemented with the herbicide glyphosate. The organophosphorous herbicide efficiently stimulated the growth of fungal isolates. The fungal isolates were characterized and identified and selected for mycoremedaition experiments. Certain fungal strains were tolerated to the herbicide up to 10,000 ppm where the growth inhibition reached up 47.92% in certain isolate. 800 ppm of glyphosate almost was degraded and metabolised in liquid Czapek Dox broth medium containing 1% sucrose by certain fungi as A. flavus WDCZ2 (99.6%) and P. spiculisporus ASP5 (95.7%) folowed by P. verruculosum WGP1 (90.8%). The other fungal strains did not record resonable mycoremedaition of the herbicide within 16 days, where A. niger FGP1 (37%), Bipolaris spicifera CDCZ4 (30.6%), A. terreus BGCZ3 (27%), Alt. tenuissima CDP4 (14.7%), P. spinulosum ASP3 (13.9%), A. tamarii PDCZ1 (12.5%) and A. terreus PDP1 (8.4%). On the basis of present findings, A. flavus WDCZ2 and Penicillium spiculisporus ASP5 can be recommended as potentially effective fungal strains and environmentally safer alternative tools to protect the environment from the pollution of glyphosate residues
Phyto-Microbial Degradation of Glyphosate in Riyadh Area (Review Completed - Accepted)
Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the ability of plant Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains from rhizosphere region for cleaning up glyphosate residues in soil and plants. The analytical study of the biodegradation of glyphosate was carried out in the laboratory conditions. Amaranth, Amaranthus caudate and two isolated bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium could degrade glyphosate in 5 days. These results suggested that phytoremediation could accelerate the degradation of glyphosate residues in plants and in rhizosphere region as well. Glyphosate had strong effect on bacterial DNA where many DNA bands were affected. This could be explained that the effect of herbicide glyphosate on the protein profile may reflex somehow DNA mutation occurred during the assimilation of those toxic compounds. Therefore, the alteration occurred in both DNA and protein profiles is considered a degree of tolerance that lead to DNA mutation to cope with the assimilation of this compound. Therefore, the phytoremediation way could be a promising tool in program is to protect public health and the environment by ensuring the safety and availability of herbicides and pesticide alternatives.