Utilisation of non edible Seed Oils as Potential feedstocks for Biodiesel Production: A Review (Published)
Biodiesel is a promising renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. Currently edible resources constitute 95% of biodiesel production feedstock. The continuous and large scale production of biodiesel from edible oils has recently been of great concern because they compete with food materials- the food versus fuel dispute. This paper reviewed the prospect of making biodiesel from some non-edible seed oils of Castor, Jatropha curcas, Neem and Yelllow oleander. The review gave physicochemical properties, torque outputs and specific fuel consumptions that are close to those of fossil fuel diesel thus confirming that they can be used as alternative fuels in diesel engines.
Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing mankind. Carbon dioxide, Methane and other greenhouse gases are responsible for climate change which results in global warming. It is estimated that about 37 billion tonnes of carbon dioxides are produced every year from the burning of fossil fuel alone whilst about 7 billion tonnes are produced from deforestation. If the emission of greenhouse gases continues unabated due to anthropogenic activities, the average global temperature will also continues to increase and eventually results to severe weather disruption, rise in sea levels and changes in land use patterns.Hence, this paper aims to highlights the various strategies that could be adopted in a bid to reduce global carbon footprint from anthropogenic activities. The paper employed the use of journals and other scholarly publications to provide insight into possible techniques that could be used in the transportation, manufacturing and housing sector. The paper found that adequate house insulations, low carbon vehicles, renewable energy projects such as small wind turbines, solar water heating system and biomass energy plant are possible steps that could be taken to reduce the carbon footprints of various sectors.
Radiative Forcing Due To Long-Living and Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases – A Continental View (Published)
The radiative forcing due to the long-lived and well-mixed greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) has been calculated for two countries in each of the world’s continents for an eleven year period (2001-2011) except for Antarctica where no data was published. We found that for the countries under consideration the average values of radiative forcing by CO2, CH4 and N2O were 1.6774Wm-2, 0.5705 Wm-2 and 0.2094 Wm-2 respectively, increasing annually by 0.0255 Wm-2, 0.0011 Wm-2 and 0.0025 Wm-2 also respectively. USA was the top on the list with radiative forcing value of 1.7157 Wm-2 by CO2 increasing annually by 0.0278 Wm-2 while Australia was least with 1.6470 Wm-2 with an annual incremental trend of 0.0262 Wm-2. This is largely believed to be due to heavy industrial activity in that region. We also found by calculation that if this present trend continues (as it is very likely to and even increase) that by the year 2101, the radiative forcing by CO2 in a country like the USA would rise to 3.952 Wm-2 while globally, the value would rise to 3.834 Wm-2 with CO2 emission rising up to 920ppm per year.
Natural gas has been the most popular fossil fuel in recent years, and the demand for it has been dramatic. In fact, natural gas possesses several useful features: it has a high heating value, it can be utilised as a raw material in several petrochemical industries and it is a cheap fuel source. However, raw natural gas usually contains a variety of non-hydrocarbon components, e.g., acid gases, helium, nitrogen and mercury. Raw natural gas sources with large amounts of acid gases are known as sour gas. Sour gases should be treated and sweetened to meet natural gas pipeline specifications and sale contracts. The amine gas sweetening process is widely utilised in the gas industry, either to reduce or to remove acid gases from sour natural gas streams. Indeed, amine gas sweetening has several advantages over other sweetening processes; it is more economical than other processes, and it operates continuously. Indeed, the global hydrocarbon emissions from the oil and gas industries have been dramatic. Moreover, methane, ethane and propane may be the most obvious gases that are emitted by the natural gas industry. In many cases, these emissions occur from gas processing units, e.g., gas sweetening and gas dehydration processes. In fact, these hydrocarbon gas emissions contribute to global warming and environmental pollution. Moreover, hydrocarbon emissions lead to huge losses of precious hydrocarbons every hour. Therefore, this study aims to study the effects of the solvent circulation rate on the hydrocarbon carryover from the amine gas sweetening using Aspen HYSYS software. The study also used a Murban gas stream in the simulation process because it is loaded with a high concentration of acid gases. The study determined that the amine circulation rate may have significant effects on the hydrocarbon losses during the sweetening process. Moreover, the study also recommended several methods to reduce this effect and the emission, e.g., balancing the amine circulation rate with both the sweetening efficiency and the hydrocarbon emissions.
This paper examines the issue of climate change and its impact on the environment. The effects of man’s activities as well as those of natural phenomena on global warming, climate change and the environment are presented and discussed. The options that are available as response to global warming: mitigation, adaptation and possible human suffering as consequences of what cannot be avoided by mitigation and adaptation are presented. An overview of the Nigerian environment, preparedness for the impact of global warming and related problems are also presented. The status of environmental data and the need for environmental baseline survey and the creation of a comprehensive database for the country driven by geographical information system are presented and discussed. The paper then underscores the need for governments at all levels to adequately fund geo information production and cultivate the culture of its usage for adequate and proactive response to global warming, sustainable environmental management and national development.