This study examined the integration of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (RS/GIS) for analyzing land use and land cover dynamics in Gombe Metropolitan, the Gombe State capital for the period 1976 to 2016. Land sat (TM) images of 1976, 1996and 2016 were used. The study employed supervised digital image classification method using Erdas Imagine 9.2 and Arc GIS 10.5 software and classified the land use into undisturbed vegetation, sparse vegetation, Settlements, Farmlands, Rock outcrops, Bare surfaces. The images were analyzed via georeferencing, image enhancement, image resampling and classification. The results obtained showan increasing settlements (from 0.36% – 4.01%) and farmlands (from 24.8% – 51.2%), over a decreasing of other LULC classes (bare surfaces, undisturbed and sparse vegetation, and rocky outcrops) for the time period of 1976 to 2016. These results could help city planners and policy makers to attain and sustain future urban development. It is therefore recommended that encouragement should be given to people to build towards the outskirts, like New mile 3 and Tumfure,etc through the provision of incentives and forces of attraction that is available at the city center in these areas to avoid the problem of overcrowdings.
Survey and Mapping of Speargrass (Imperata Cylindrica (L.) Reauschel) Invasiveness Using Gis Techniques in Two Agro-Ecologies of Nigeria (Published)
Speargrass invasiveness in Derived Savanna (DS) and southern Guinea Savanna – northern fringe (SGS) is influenced by the rainfall amount and cultural practices (weed management methods, tillage method and plant spacing). Studies were conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Eruwa (DS) and Kishi (SGS), to investigate the problem of weed incidence in farmers’ fields and the influence of weed control methods adopted on invasiveness with structured questionnaire; the invasiveness of predominant weed [speargrass – Imperata cylindrica (L.) Reauschel]. The geographical analysis were carried out in an ArcGIS environment. Results showed that speargrass was the predominant weed identified by 100% and 90% of farmers in DS and SGS respectively. Other weeds identified were broadleaf (54%), grass (38%) and sedge (8%) in both locations. Manual weeding (slashing and hoe-weeding) was the most common weed control method used among respondent farmers in the two agro-ecologies. 60% and 50% of the farmers adopted manual weeding in DS and SGS respectively. This was followed by chemical weed control (DS 30% and SGS 40%) and manual + chemical was practiced by 10% each of farmers in both agro-ecologies. Frequently used weed control methods followed the order of Manual weeding (MW) > Chemical weeding (CW) > Manual + chemical weeding (MW + CW). Average speargrass density in DS was 140 stands/sq.m (0 – 288 stands/sq.m), while the mean was 39 stands/sq.m (0 – 160 stands/sq.m) in SGS. Speargrass covered 288.07 sq.km (79.80% of surveyed area) with <50 stands/m2 in SGS, while 231.74 sq.km (57.60% of surveyed area) with density of 150 stands/sq.m in DS. Weed management methods and locations might have influenced speargrass invasiveness.
Object-based methods for image analysis have the advantage of incorporating spatial context and mutual relationships between objects. Few studies have explored the application of object-based approaches to forest classification. This paper introduced an object based method to SPOT5 image to map the land cover in Yen Nhan commune in 2015. This approach applied multi-resolution segmentation algorithm of eCognition Developer and an object based classification framework. In addition, forest maps from 2000 to 2015 were used to analyze the change in forest cover in each 5 years period. The object based method clearly discriminated the different land cover classes in Yen Nhan. The overall kappa value was 0.73 was achieved. The estimation of forest area was 89.05 % of forest cover in 2015. By overlaying achieve forest maps of 2000, 2005, 2010 and the classified map of 2015 shows vegetation changed during 2000-2015 remarkably.
Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Site Selection of Jigjiga Town Using GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques, Ethiopia (Published)
Municipal solid waste management is a problem that is experienced by all counties in the world. Because of its nature, it has remained one of the major environmental problems man continues to face. Municipal solid waste management is considered as one of the most serious environmental and social problems challenging municipal authorities in developing countries. One of these impacts is raised from location of dumping site in unsuitable areas. This paper deals with selection of suitable site for the disposal of municipal solid waste generated from Jigjiga Municipality using GIS techniques.The existing open dumping systems in the town are not environmentally sound and socially acceptable as wastes have been dumped in inappropriate sites. The present study had integrated environmental and socio-economic criteria like proximity to road networks, distances from residences and important built up areas; surface water (river), boreholes and reservoirs to select the most suitable landfill site in the study area. The result reveals that out of five candidate landfill sites, a site with reasonable size (24 ha), at optimum distance from residences (4.8 km) and accessible to the major roads (1 km) was nominated as the most suitable site.
Designing and Implementing Of Electronic Health Record System in KSA Using SQL & ASP.NET (Published)
Electronic health record (EHR) rapid progress for reporting electronic data storage that employs uniform data standards will enable health care organizations to respond more quickly to federal state, and private reporting requirements, including those that support patient safety and disease surveillance. An examination of many hospitals that recently implemented in King Saudi Arabia (KSA). A little of electronic health record (EHR) system finds that clinical and administrative leaders built EHR adoption into their strategic plans to integrate, inpatient and outpatient care system and a provide continuum of coordinated services. Using Relational Data Base Management Systems (RDBMS) with eXtend Marker Language (XML) Systems and ASP.NET as web based system. Successful implementation depended on: strong leadership, full involvement of clinical staff in design and implementation, mandatory staff training, and strict adherence to timeline and budget. The EHR systems facilitate patient safety and quality development through; use of checklists, alerts, and predictive tools embedded clinical guidelines that promote standardized, evidence-based practices electronic prescribing and test-ordering that reduces errors and redundancy and discrete data fields that foster use of performance dashboards and compliance reports. The proposed system will be developed using ASP.NET as a technology of web based system. In this paper; most of the services, enjoyed on the internet are provided by web database applications and using .net technology. Such as, Web-based email, online shopping, forums and bulletin boards, corporate web sites, and sports and news portals are all database-driven. The main goals in this work, building a modern web site of electronic health record system in KSA hospitals.
APPLICATION OF GOOGLE EARTH FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BASE MAP IN THE CASE OF GISH ABBAY SEKELA, AMHARA STATE, ETHIOPIA (Published)
Google Earth is a virtual globe, map and Geographical Information Program that was originally called Earth Viewer 3D which is important to maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and Geographic Information System (GIS) 3D globe. Google Earth is useful for teachers are adopting Google Earth in the classroom for lesson planning; used to map homes and select a random sample for base map development for research. Classification of land use/land cover mapping (LULC) in scales such as urban district through high spatial resolution datasets is too expensive for many pilot projects mainly due to the cost of purchasing raw satellite images. Images from GE with high spatial resolution are free for public and can be used directly in LULC mapping in small geographical extend for mapping of green areas (forests, grasses) and buildings of a cities. Therefore, this study explores the possibility of mapping of green areas (forests, grasses) and buildings in Gish Abbay Sekela through images from Google Earth. After images are saved, georeferencing is taken and Maximum Likelihood Classification was used to develop base map. Under land use and land cover categories 5 (five) major land use land cover types are identified and Classified from the image. These are Agriculture land, Green area (Forest) land, Grazing Land, Building (Settlements) land others (like Market place, Road, Bare land…). The result showed that majority of the study area was covered by Grazing Land 221.534282 (ha) contributes 31.51600547% of the total area. Agriculture and green area/forest land cover an aerial size of 205.296619 ha (29.20599606 %) and 138.965081 ha (19.76951022 %) respectively, whereas the aerial coverage of Building/Settlement and other land use land cover is 6.699674908 ha (6.699674908 %) and 90.036514 ha (12.80881334 %) from the total area of the Gish Abbay town.
Water Demand Management in Some Arab Countries Using GIS (Review Completed - Accepted)
The alarming increase in the scarcity of water in various parts of the world. Water is a main issue in many countries especially in those Arab countries, it has focused a global attention on the need for a stronger and more appropriate water resource management and availability solutions. With about 170 million people in 17 countries suffering from water scarcity and about 275 million in 9 countries having “water stresses” conditions, it becomes imperative for nations to come up with more focused and direct measures that would address and stem this resource scarcity. Water sustainability needs a balance between demand and availability. The main objective of this paper is the application of these concepts to Arabs countries. Water demand management is about achieving a reduction in the use of water resources, normally through increased efficiency of water application. The management of water resources was not explicitly included in the past from thirty-five years in all most of those countries normative system partly because water was believed to be a free good in mind, and was not accepted to have a price to pay to use it. This work contributed to a low efficiency of water use and waste of it, and water prices are often well below levels needed to cover the costs of the system. Moreover, this contributes to a worse quality of water, and, as quality of water decrease, the management of water resources becomes more challenging and the need to integrate water quality into an overall water resources management grows. The main goal of this paper is showing, how Geographical Information Systems (GIS ) can be used to support infrastructure planners and analyst on water demand of a local area in some Arabs countries such as(Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, KSA and UAE).