Participation in decision-making is the root of democratization, as democratization is widely believed to be rooted in decentralization. As such, citizens’ participation in the decentralization process will bring governance closer to the people. The focus of the study was to explore the views and understandings of citizens about Ghana’s decentralization process. The researcher used the case study design for the study. Both questionnaire and interview protocol were used for data gathering. One hundred and six people in the area were conveniently sampled to become respondents in the study. For the method of data analysis, the researcher used tables and percentages. The study found out that nearly 25% of the citizens have no or very little understanding of the decentralization process. Even though majority of the citizens took part in local elections, the citizens were not part of the decision making process, planning of developmental projects and paying taxes/levies to the district assembly. The non-performance of Unit Committee Members were found to be the cause of citizens’ non-participation in the decentralization programme even though there were other factors that generally affected the programme in the North Tongu District. The study recommended that the need for some more education in the Decentralization Process for all citizens.
Incidence of Occupational Health Hazards and Safety Culture at Tema Oil Refinery (Tor) In Ghana: Exploring the Symbiotic Relationship (Published)
This study examined a symbiotic relationship between Occupational health hazards and safety culture at Tema oil refinery in Ghana. The study employed both exploratory and descriptive research designs. Convenient sampling technique and structured questionnaires were deployed to elicit information from 186 participants. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study discovered that employees are continuously been exposed to chemical substances – the incessant exposure to hazardous chemical poses health complications like respiratory diseases, reproductive disorders, cardiovascular diseases, renal diseases and others. Furthermore the study revealed that protective wears and equipment are inadequate resulting in the inhalation of hazardous chemicals and sometimes spill over their skin. Moreover, the study found that there are lapses and weak ergonomic arrangements in the Tema Oil Refinery (TOR). The study found that job description at TOR is very challenging, tedious and time consuming. In addition the study revealed that although TOR offers pre-employment training before employees are employed, the company lacks continuous policy on training where employees are periodically trained to equip them on health and safety practices. Surprisingly, TOR is less proactive about the health of employees because they lack policies that ensure occasional check-ups for health issues. In conclusion, the causes of accidents were identified as poor working conditions, human errors and the lack of protective clothing. The study recommends that there is the urgent need to integrate policies and models to effectively manage safety culture at TOR. Furthermore, the study recommends that integrated model is required to comprehensively explain the safety culture at TOR since implementation of occupational health and safety management system (OHS-MS) has been proven inadequate.
Purpose – The study examines the bank selection criteria employed by Ghanaian university students. Design/methodology/approach – We used convenience sampling to select 997 students aged between 15-30 years from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Exploratory factor analysis was first conducted to determine the constructs that measure students’ selection of bank criteria. Using binary logistic regression, the extracted constructs were used as independent variable on the bank patronized. The effects of student demographics on the bank selection criteria was also determined using a multiple linear regression. Findings – The study extracted six constructs that measured bank selection criteria by university students. These were operational competence, external influence, physical evidence, e-banking facilities, convenience and cost of operating bank account. Out these, e-banking facility, convenience and cost of operating bank account, were statistically significant at determining the selection of bank. The department students belonged to (social science or pure science) affected the level of weight placed on cost of operation. Age of respondents and department affected the premium placed on e-banking. Finally, employment status and department affected the level of importance student attached to convenience as a selection criterion. Gender of students had no statistical effect on any of the bank selection criteria. Originality/value – The reviewed literature showed that, researchers either explored in isolation, bank characteristics influencing bank selection by clients, or client demographic and preference for bank and its characteristics. This study sought to feel this gap by combining the two, to provide a more robust model in explaining students’ selection of bank.
This study was aimed to assess service quality of logistics service providers (courier services) in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The study was a cross sectional descriptive survey. The target population of the study was customers of the selected courier services providers. The study deployed stratified sampling technique and 120 sample size. The SERVQUAL Model was the underpinning philosophy adopted for the study. Structured questionnaire were used. Data were gathered through primary and secondary sources. The primary data were analyzed using Predictive Analytical Software (PASW) for windows. Secondary data were obtained from data bases including Pro-Quest, EBSCO, Open Access Directorate, Google Scholar, Cross- Ref and Index Copernicus. The results were presented using unweighted means, Chi-square Tests and frequencies. The study revealed that overall customers were satisfied with all the five service quality dimensions. Specifically respondents rated their satisfaction as follows: Assurance Empathy, Tangibility, Responsiveness and Reliability The study further revealed there is a significant association between customer’s location and satisfaction. Also, the study found that there is an association between customers preferred brand and satisfaction. Finally, there is significant association between customers perceived service safety and satisfaction. The study concluded that logistics service providers should aim at delighting their customers to ensure customer loyalty in order to prevent any switch in the future.
Empirical Analyses on Tutors and Mentees Perception of the Effectiveness of Out-Segment Supervision of Colleges of Education in the Ashanti Region, Ghana (Published)
This study explored the effectiveness of Out-segment supervision of the In-In-Out programme in Colleges of Education in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. It was a descriptive survey that used 207 link tutors and 334 mentees with a semi-structured questionnaire as primary data collection instrument. Data were analysed using Kruskal Wallis ANOVA and One-sample t-test. The study revealed that the Out-segment supervision was being carried out effectively despite some challenges that needed to be addressed. Specifically, some of the findings are that generally, most of the activities under the pre-observation conference were rated unsatisfactory by both respondents. However, for the observation activities, the findings revealed that mentees and link tutors in St Louis, Offinso and Akrokerri confirmed that they were effectively conducted in their schools. It was recommended that areas where the evaluation indicated unsatisfactory performance, management of those colleges should do well to address those challenges.
Music has played a very significant role in educating Ghanaian primary school children. From the colonial era till 1959, there were no curriculum document that guided teaching and learning of the art. What to teach and what to learn were left largely to the initiative and enthusiasm of individual teachers. The first ever syllabus for teaching the subject was published in 1959 by the Ghana Ministry of Education. Since then the music curriculum has gone through series of reviews and reforms, the last being the publication and implementation of the Creative Arts curriculum for primary schools in 2007. The aim of this paper is to present a brief chronology of fifty nine (59) years of implementation of formal music education in Ghanaian primary schools from 1959 to 2018.
The study examined academic motivation and academic performance of Junior High School (JHS) students in Ghana. Differences between the academic motivation of male and female students as well as between students from urban and rural schools were examined. Participants were 756 male and 714 female JHS 2 students randomly selected from 24 Junior High Schools through stratified random sampling using gender and location as criteria for stratification. Two research instruments, the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) with a Cronbach Alpha Reliability Coefficient of 0.75 and Achievement Tests in Mathematics, English Language, Social Studies and Integrated Science were used to collect data. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and t-tests were used in analyzing the data. The results showed a positive relationship between academic motivation and academic performance of JHS students. While the results showed a statistically significant difference between the academic motivation of students in schools in urban and rural areas, there was difference between the academic motivation of male and female students. It was recommended that teachers, parents and all those concerned with the education of children should put in place psychological processes that are intended to boost the ego of students thereby making them have an inner feeling of satisfaction when they accomplish academic tasks.
Performing Arts pedagogy courses have not been the choice of pre-service generalist teachers in Wesley College of Education in the city of Kumasi, Ghana between 2010/2011 and 2016/2017 academic years. At the beginning of the 2017/2018 academic year, six students selected the course as their elective for study. This study explores the motivation behind these pre-service teachers selecting the Performing Arts pedagogy courses for study. Prior engagement in the performing arts, expectation of ability to teach, and achieving good examination results emerged as the main themes from the analysis of qualitative semi-structured interview data. Findings suggest that there is a relationship between prior experiences in the performing arts and motivation to continue engagements in the arts. Further research with pre-service teachers to identify their needs, interests, abilities and background experiences in the performing arts will help teacher educators to train students to be effective practitioners in their future classrooms.
The Role of Art in Customary Marriage Ceremonies: The Case of Krobos of Somanya, Ghana (Published)
Customary Marriage ceremonies among the Krobos of Somanya in the Eastern Region of Ghana involve a lot of display of both visual and performing art forms. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the role of arts in the marriage ceremonies of the Krobos of Somanya by identifying the art forms and symbols exhibited at such marriage ceremonies, and then evaluating the significance of each art form or symbol in the entire ceremony. Qualitative research method with Semi structured interviews and Focus Group Discussions were used to gather information that addresses the research objectives and questions. The sampling frame for the study included traditional elders within the Somanya community, chiefs, queen mothers, and family heads. The purposive sampling was used to select two (2) traditional leaders, as well as five (5) other persons who are well informed of the traditions and customs of Somanya to serve as respondents for the study. The data gathered were subsequently analyzed using the qualitative technique. From the results of the study, the major findings was that music, drama and appellations were highly used by marriage couples throughout the marriage rites. It was also found that beads play a very important role in the marriage ceremonies, with each bead colour having a particular meaning and significance to the marriage process. It could be concluded that each art form observed at the ceremony has a meaning and significance have endeared most people to the traditional form of marriage in spite of the prevalence of the Ordinance (wedding) type of marriage in other areas. Finally, efforts should be made to establish a gallery as well as a website where the various art forms used in such marriage ceremonies, their meanings and significance can be captured on audio and video for display, preservation, and for sale.
Culture of Vote Buying and Its Implications: Range Of Incentives and Conditions Politicians Offer to Electorates (Published)
Each election year and in almost every local and institutional elections the issue of vote buying surfaces. Vote buying has almost become part of every election in Ghana. While the menace is on the increase, it is unclear whether votes bought translate into votes for the buyer or the buying party. This work sought to investigate the range of incentives and conditions politicians give to electorates. Sequential mixed-method design was employed for the study. Data from questionnaire was triangulated with interviews. The target population for this study consists of the entire group of potential voters in Shama District in the Western Region who were 18 years and above. Five (5) communities or electoral areas in the district were selected for the study. These communities were Atwereboanda, Komfueku, Beposo, Nyankrom and Shama. A sample size of three hundred (300) was chosen for the quantitative (questionnaires administered) aspect of the research while twenty of them were purposively selected for the qualitative (interviews conducted) aspect of the study. Two party activists were also interviewed to support the data. Non-probability (convenience, proportional and purposive) sampling techniques were employed to select the district, communities and respondents for the study. The study revealed among other things that: (a) Items that are used to buy votes include silver pans (basins), cloths, gas cylinders, laptops, money, outboard motors, wellington boots and party branded items; and (b) During vote buying, conditions are not actually attached to the incentives except where there are doubts that one wants to take the incentive without reciprocating with his/her vote. Enforcing laws on vote buying by all stakeholders including the police, the judiciary, the Electoral Commission of Ghana (EC) and resolving to fight corruption among leaders who also use all means to make money to engage in vote buying would go a long way to solve the menace
Corporate Farud: Causes, Effects and Deterence on Financial Institutions in Ghana (Review Completed - Accepted)
The purpose of the study is to find out the causes, effects and deterrence and prevention of corporate fraud in financial institution of Ghana. In particular, we examine the effects of fraud on firm’s financial performance. A cross sectional model was used to find the effects of financial institutions fraud on financial performance. It was revealed that, fraud has a significant negative effects on financial performance i.e. Return on Assets of financial institutions in Ghana. However, structured questionnaires was also used to find out the perception of Accountants, Auditors and management on the main causes of banking fraud and deterrence and prevention methods in curbing the menace. It was revealed that weaker internal control, inadequate training and fraud policies, failed Documents and proper Remuneration are the strong arsenal that causes fraud in financial institutions of Ghana. Moreover, organizational use of password protection, Good Remuneration, Employees background Checks, adequate fraud training were perceived as the most deterrence and prevention method in fighting fraud in financial institutions. Our results have practical implication for management, accountants, Auditors and all stakeholders in financial institutions on the effects of fraud on firms financial performance and in mounting fool proof methods in curbing this canker and reducing it to bearest minimum. The study contributes deterrence and prevention methods aim at improving it effectiveness in reducing fraud in Ghana and West Africa.
The Microfinance Industry (MFI) emerging from the banking industry, lead time management is very important since the sector is highly dependent on very recent technology and customer service efficiency ethics which is capable of drastically reducing lead times. Customers are also highly informed and their demands and expectations are high. Customers want instant solutions when it comes to their financial or banking services. It is therefore important for microfinance companies to effectively manage their lead times to achieve higher levels of customer satisfaction. This study adopts the methodology of a hybrid approach consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches in examining the impact of lead time on customer satisfaction in the microfinance industry, a sub sector of SMEs in Ghana. Sample size of 150 staff and customers mostly petty traders was considered from five selected branches of Talent Microfinance Company limited. In selecting the sample size of the petty traders for the survey, the Slovin’s sampling method was used. The study findings revealed that that minimizing waiting time in a bid to enhance customer satisfaction level can typically improve the competitiveness of microfinance services in Ghana as these are deemed the basic requirements for social development as well as for human civilization. Furthermore, establishing a scientific, workable and efficient banking system improves efficiency and enhances the competitiveness for banks to be an important society role. This is a requirement for banking industries own development, and a new inevitable challenge for modern Ghanaian financial institutions to increase the banking management development. The study recommends among several others that there is the need for improvement in academia or higher learning in Ghanaian microfinance institutions to link with other financial institutions in Ghana and identify gaps in the knowledge, values, skills and attitudes of their graduates most especially in TMCL.
Gender Metamorphoses in the Use of ICT Tools: A Case Study at Offinso College of Education (Published)
The role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education cannot be overemphasized, hence teachers as agents of education are expected to acquire the essential skills to help train the 21st century child to survive in the current competitive and technologically driven world. The study aimed at the impact of ICT on Male and Female student-teachers in Colleges of Education in Ghana. The Mixed research design which takes into consideration the various factors that influence ICT access and usage in Colleges of Education was used. It outlines the various factors that militate against successful integration of ICT tools in teaching and learning. The extent to which student-teachers are embracing technology in their learning have been analysed. The study used questionnaire and participatory observation of classroom activities to collect data from hundred and forty (140) Student-teachers at Offinso College of Education. The findings show no significant difference in access and usage of ICT tools among male and female student-teachers. The study revealed lack of technical support and maintenance as a significant impediment to the development of ICT in the College of education. However, there was no significant difference in access and use of ICT tool since student-teachers share similar backgrounds.
The Process Model of Conflict Resolution (Published)
This paper is a contribution to the theory, principles and practice of conflict resolution. It takes on the task of publishing a model – a process model of conflict resolution – developed following a research into the resolution of an inter-ethnic conflict. We discussed the process model in terms of conflict resolution dynamics and practices. The discussion outlined the factors, processes and conditions which make resolution possible using the lessons drawn from our research into how one of Ghana’s most intractable conflicts, the Nkonya-Alavanyo conflict in the Volta Region, was resolved. The paper argued that conflict resolution should be understood as a process involving many dynamics including actors, issues, times, resources (finance) and conditions in the context where the conflict occurs. The model stresses the importance of resolving conflict through community structures, highlighting the importance of careful mapping of the conflict in order to identify the dynamics (issues and the actors) involved. We argued that conflict resolution should be approached as a multi-layered dynamic process where the latencies are interconnected, procedural and parallel. We argued that funding is an essential ingredient in conflict resolution as is timing of resolution efforts, trust building, long term commitment and capacity building (confidence building) and sensitivity to local context issues. We put forward the idea that conflict resolution is a multi-dimensional process involving a broad spectrum of actors, activities, processes, and resources.
Assessing the Relationship between Energy Efficient Design Decisions and Energy Performance of Public Buildings in Ghana: Architect Perspective (Published)
As energy is a locomotive sector of the national economy, energy efficient decisions in the construction industry cannot be underestimated. The purpose of the study is to assess the perceptions of Architect on relationship between energy efficient design decisions and energy performance on public buildings in Ghana. Questionnaire was the main data collection tool. The questionnaires were distributed to a randomly selected sample of one hundred and thirty-five (135) registered architects. The data was analysed using inferential statistics such as Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. The study established that there was a significant, positive correlation between building envelope/orientation, site condition related decision and energy performance of public buildings and these has explain 81.7 percent of the variation in energy performance. It was again reveal that factors that contributed significantly to this relationship were Passive solar technique, Natural ventilation, Temperature of the building site, Day lighting technique and Site shading strategy. The study indicates that the most critical constrain to energy efficient design were lack of public awareness followed by client budget and lack of skilled labour. It is recommended that Architects should adopt the EED framework designed as an appropriate strategy in the design of public buildings to improve the energy performance of public buildings.
Understanding Rural-Urban Migration from the Perspectives of Migrants in Agbogbloshie, Ghana (Published)
About half of the urban growth in Africa is accounted for by migrants from rural areas yet we fail to understand migration from the perspectives of the migrants. This paper seeks to understand rural urban migration from the perspective of migrants and how this can inform rural development planning. A mixed research design was adopted to explore the decision making process around migration. In-depth interviews were held with migrants in Agbogbloshie and their families in Yendi where they have come from. The paper found that while rural-urban migration will persist for a long time because of the deprivation in rural areas, migrants have plans to return home. Planning would need to shift from the conventional approaches of general rural development towards a good understanding of rural development problems unique to certain areas.
Gender Differences in Performance in Mathematics among Pre-Service Teachers in the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana (Published)
The purpose of this study was to find out gender differences in performance in mathematics among Pre-service Teachers in the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana. A sample of one hundred pre-service teachers drawn by convenience sampling from the public College of Education was used for the study. The one hundred pre-service teachers which consist of fifty males and fifty females were conveniently selected from the second year form. The design for the study was a descriptive survey and for their performance in mathematics, pre-service teachers’ actual examination scores were collected from the public College of Education and were analysed using the t-test in SPSS. The test was done on performance of pre-service teachers. Based on the findings of this study, there was a significant difference in their performance. Finally, it was also recommended that administrators and mathematics tutors in the public College of Education in the Brong-Ahafo Region should adopt strategies that suggest to pre-service teachers that they have what it takes to go through their studies successfully, and should focus their attention on how to reduce skills disparities among pre-service teachers.
Areas of Male Dominance: Experiences of Married Women in the Mozano Community in Ghana (Published)
The purpose of this study was to assess the experiences of married women on male dominance in Mozano Community in the Central Region of Ghana. The study therefore sought to ascertain the ways married men dominate their wives. Qualitatively, phenomenological design with one-on-one interviews and focus group discussions were employed for collection of data. The population for the study was the married couples in Mozano community. Since Mozano attracts pilgrims and visitors on daily basis, only couples who attend Mozama Disco Christo Church (MDCC) and are permanent residents in Mozano were purposively sampled for the study. In terms of the study, the researchers ensured that the participants meet the following inclusion criteria: (1) availability and willingness to participate in the study; (2) couples who have married for five years and above; and (3) permanent residents in Mozano who attend the MDCC. The study involved 20 participants. This comprised fifteen married women and five married men who were heads of their households. The study revealed that most men dominate their wives in the area of reproduction because most women are ignorant of their reproductive rights. Most men decide on the number of times they will have sex, the number of children they will have and when to have a child without the consent of their wives. Most men see no need to involve their wives in decision making because they think women on their own cannot take or contribute to any meaningful or responsible decision. Religious factors and the doctrines of the MDCC have contributed to male dominance on married women in the community and lack of descent and profitable jobs for women in the community have made them to be dominated by their husbands. It was therefore recommended that married women in the Mozano community should make a personal choice to develop their capabilities to the maximum degree without regard for culturally and religious obstacles. There is also the need for gender education by the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection to organise seminars and symposia for men in the Mozano community on the need to involve their wives in decision making at all levels.
Gaps between Literature Portraying Child Rearing Practices and Young Offenders’ Views of Their Growing Up Experiences (Published)
This paper discusses growing up experiences of juvenile and young offenders and advances the argument that literature characterized by essentialist views seeks to predominantly establish that child rearing practices are homogenous. In contrast, the narratives of youngsters collected do not only depict varied growing up encounters outside the family, but also show that youngsters construct diverse meanings from their differentiated experiences. Whereas this is a small-scale study and cannot lend itself to generalisations or constitute a basis for refuting such literature accounts, the empirical data of the study nevertheless establishes that there is seldom familial contact for the children who engage the attention of this study. This paper also highlights aspects of youngsters’ friendships feature prominently in the narratives of youngsters, yet remain underrepresented in Ghanaian scholarly work on children. Discussions draw on a sociological research conducted from 2009 to 2011 with children in correctional institutions.
Issues and Options for Using Multimedia to Improve Pre-Service Mathematics Teacher Education in Ghana (Published)
It is well documented that the overly theoretical coursework in conventional mathematics teacher education programs does not effectively challenge pre-service mathematics teachers’ preconceived ideas about the teaching of mathematics. In addition, field experiences provided for pre-service teachers have been shown to have inherent limitations. Consequently, several mathematics educators have drawn attention to the need to engage pre-service mathematics teachers in experiences that present actual teaching practices and make it possible for them to study or critique those practices reflectively. In the developed countries like the US there appears to be a growing interest in the potential of multimedia systems to bring this type of reflective and critical thinking about the teaching of mathematics. In the developing countries such as Ghana, very little of such efforts, if any, is being done to improve mathematics teacher education. This paper looks at the potential of these multimedia environments to improve education of prospective mathematics teachers in Ghana. It focuses on how multimedia programs fit into contemporary theories of teacher learning and supports this with a discussion of empirical research efforts at using multimedia programs to facilitate education of prospective mathematics teachers. Implications for pre-service mathematics teacher education in Ghana are also presented.