Tag Archives: Ghana

Challenges and Coping Strategies of Career Mothers Teaching in Selected Senior High Schools in The New Juaben Municipality of Ghana (Published)

Over the years, women’s position has changed remarkably from just a home keeper and baby maker and they are seen in various sector actively engaged in work outside the home. Despite these great strides, women seem to face many challenges, including discrimination and gender stereotypes. This study explored the challenges and coping strategies of career mothers teaching in selected senior high school in the New Juaben Municipality. The study adopted the qualitative research approach and used a case study design to explore the experiences of these career mothers. The study population consisted of career mothers teaching in senior high schools in the New Juaben Municipality. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select twenty participants for the study. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect data from the participants. The data was analysed using thematic approach. The study revealed that career mothers teaching in senior high schools face challenges associated with role conflict between their work role and family responsibilities. They indicated that they managed the conflict through careful structuring and planning of their activities, prioritizing their responsibilities. It was also revealed that career mothers needed support from spouses, families, and colleagues in order to cope with their multiple roles. It is recommended that Ministry of Education through Ghana Education Service develop policies that enable career mothers to achieve work-life balance. Such policies may include career breaks, job sharing, flexible working arrangements and childcare policies.

Keywords: Challenges, Coping Strategies, Ghana, Senior High School, career mothers

Determinants Factors of Digital Financial Services Adoption and Usage Level: Empirical Evidence from Ghana (Published)

Digital Financial Services (DFS) have the potential to benefit people in poverty in developing economies significantly. DFS provides a variety of economical, convenient, and secure financial services. However, the DFS adoption rate is slow in Ghana due to being over-reliant on personal cash delivery. Substantial variation in adoption levels across important socio-demographic characteristics is another factor. Using a representative national dataset from Ghana, this study explored digital financial services adoption determinants. It quantified the role played by each of the six incorporating factors and controlled four socio-demographic characteristics. The work also assessed the adoption level among key socio-demographic groups. The determinants of DFS are estimated using logit specification, and average marginal effects are computed. The logit model indicated that effort expectancy, awareness, facilitating conditions, transaction cost, security and privacy, and self-efficacy positively influence DFS adoption and increase DFS adoption by 0.7%, 2.3%, 28.5%, 3%, 2.1%, and 2.4%, respectively. Additionally, the results indicated a significant disparity in adoption levels across key socio-demographic variables, including education level, gender, urban and rural residence, and administrative regions of Ghana. Given the substantial influence of facilitating conditions and transaction costs on DFS adoption, we argue that it would be advisable to incorporate digital infrastructure development and lower transaction cost measures into the planning of any intervention.

Citation: Isaac Anane, and Fengying Nie (2022) Determinants Factors of Digital Financial Services Adoption and Usage Level: Empirical Evidence from Ghana, International Journal of Management Technology, Vol.9, No 1, pp. 26-47

Keywords: Adoption, Development, Ghana, digital economy, digital financial services

The Effect of Interest Rate Spread on Economic Growth: Ghana’s Perspective (Published)

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of interest rate spread on economic growth using annual time series data from 1975 to 2018. The study used the Engel-granger two-step procedure which uses the OLS technique to establish both the long-run and short-run relationships between interest rate spread and economic growth. The study established that interest rate spread is a statistically important determinant of economic growth but it has a negative impact in the long-run. Also, the result shows that labour force, capital stock, and exports affect economic growth in Ghana positively both in the long-run and short-run. However, government expenditure appeared not to be a statistically significant factor in determining economic growth in Ghana. Policy actions that ensure macroeconomic stability should be embarked upon to achieve stability and sustainable growth of the economy. Export promotion, investment opportunities as well as producing active labour force should be given a priority.

Keywords: Ghana, Interest Rate Spread, Sustainable Growth, economic growth, government expenses

Corporate Social Responsibility in contemporary Ghana: A Literature Review (Published)

This paper critically reviews current conceptualisations of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Ghana to highlight trends and key developments in both research and practice. A systematic literature review (SLR) methodology was conducted to provide a synthesised analysis of sixty-one (61) academic papers published on CSR in Ghana from 2007 to 2020. The empirical-based review established that contemporary CSR in Ghana is framed within the context of development and reflects voluntary corporate self-regulation. Also, CSR has become increasingly integral to business due to corporate reforms, globalisation and greater awareness for sustainable business practices. The results further revealed that firm-related drivers serve as key determinants of responsibility practices. In addition, contributions to CSR in social spaces and academic scholarship have spearheaded the growth of CSR in Ghana. The growing interest in CSR as a management practice in Ghana requires a comprehensive literature study to highlight current status and future directions. This is the first study to systematically review CSR research in Ghana to provide an account of contemporary notions of the concept. The study adds value to the existing limited body of knowledge on literature reviews and also makes practical recommendations for the implementation of effective CSR programmes.

Citation: Mavis Amo-Mensah (2021) Corporate Social Responsibility in contemporary Ghana: A literature Review, International, Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.9, No.5, pp.78-93



Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Ghana, Literature Review, Research, Trends, practice

Challenges and Coping Mechanisms of Career Mothers Teaching In Selected Senior High Schools in the New Juaben Municipality of Ghana (Published)

Over the years, women’s position has changed remarkably from just a home keeper and baby maker and they are seen in various sectors actively engaged in work outside the home. Despite these great strides, women seem to face many challenges, including discrimination and gender stereotypes. This study explored the challenges and coping mechanisms of career mothers teaching in selected senior high school in the New Juaben Municipality. The study adopted the qualitative research approach and used a case study design to explore the experiences of these career mothers. The study population consisted of career mothers teaching in senior high schools in the New Juaben Municipality. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select twenty participants for the study. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect data from the participants. The data was analysed using thematic approach. The study revealed that career mothers teaching in senior high schools faces challenges associated with managing the roles they perform at their workplace and the performance of family responsibilities. They indicated that they cope with conflicting role demands by structuring and planning their day-to-day activities through prioritization in term of their responsibilities. It was also revealed that career mothers needed support from their married partners, family members, and friends in their bid to cope with their conflicting roles. It is recommended that Ministry of Education through Ghana Education Service should develop policies that are gender sensitive to enable career mothers achieve their plights of balancing their work and family life effectively. Such policies may include job breaks, work sharing, flexible working plans and childcare support

Keywords: Challenges, Ghana, Senior High School, career mothers, coping mechanisms

Forms and Causes of Violence Women Perpetrate Against Themselves in Winneba in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana (Published)

This study sought to examine violence against women in Winneba in the Effutu Municipality, Ghana, with the focus on females being victims as well as perpetrators of violence. The study ascertained the forms and causative factors of violence against women. The ecological model and the social learning theory were adopted for the study. Qualitative research approach was employed with a focus on phenomenological research design for the study. A total of seventeen (17) participants constituted the sample size. The participants were selected using purposive and snowballing sampling techniques. Semi-structured interview guide was used to obtain the data. The study revealed that unequal power relations, suspicion of adultery, being a victim of violence during childhood, are the reasons why women employ various forms of violence against women in Winneba while poverty and single parenting made other women sufferers of such violence. Based on these findings, the study recommended that stakeholders such as Domestic Violence Victim Support Unit (DOVVSU), Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection and Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) should formulate policies and organise programmes that can address risk factors associated with violence at domestic, community and societal levels. Religious groups and non-governmental organisations in Winneba in the Effutu Municipality should organise women empowerment programmes with the intention of reducing women’s dependency on other people which will at the long run reduce violence against women.

Citation: Roberta Mbiri and  Lucy Effeh Attom (2021) Forms and Causes of Violence Women Perpetrate Against Themselves in Winneba in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.9, No.10, pp.35-62

Keywords: Causes, Effutu municipality, Forms, Ghana, Violence, Women, perpetrators

Dynamics of the Chieftaincy Succession Conflict in the Akuapem Traditional Area of Ghana (Published)

This study is a contribution to knowledge on the existence of succession conflict within the Akuapem Traditional Area. The study focused on the dynamics of the conflict. This study was anchored on an interpretivist philosophical viewpoint. Methodologically, the study employed a qualitative approach with case study research design. Thirty-four adults who have lived in the area for the past five years participated in the study. They included members of the traditional council, the Akuapem North Municipal Assembly, the royal gates to the paramountcy and adults within the community. Participants were selected using extreme case, critical case and convenience sampling techniques. Data were collected with the use of interview guide, focus-group discussion and observation protocols. The data collected were analysed thematically in line with the research question and emerged patterns from the dataset. The study found out that the dynamics of the conflict revolved around causes which involves power struggle, contestation of succession processes, and the disrespect of traditional authorities and stakeholders. The multiple causes resulted in the exacerbation of the conflict. The complex dynamics of the conflict has had multiple implications on the stability and development of the society. It is therefore, recommended that various measures be put in place by the government and various institutions concerned as well as the traditional area to address the chieftaincy succession issue and adequately ensure the full functioning of the institution and the society.

Citation:Shirley Dankwa, Ernest Kumi, Francis Tsatsu Owulah, Isaac Eshun (2021) Dynamics of the Chieftaincy Succession Conflict in the Akuapem Traditional Area of Ghana, International Journal of African Society, Cultures and Traditions, Vol.9, No.1, pp.48-76,

Keywords: Akwapem traditional area, Chieftaincy, Conflict, Ghana, Succession

The Role of Procurement in Quality Management of Ghana Cocobod, Ghana. (Published)

In the era of global competitive market, quality output forms the bedrock for survival in this hectic business environment. Organizations therefore spend a lot of time and money to meet quality standard, the role of procurement in quality management is paramount and cannot be over emphasized. As a prime objective therefore quality management in this article attempts to undertake a systematic examination of the extent to which an entity as in this case Ghana Cocoa Board is capable of fulfilling specified quality requirement. In spite of the fact that the Ghana Cocoa Board have some ways of handling the issue of quality, customers keep on complaining about the defect of the products which sometimes lead to rejection of the cocoa beans. Some institutions assigned to maintain standards have complained about proliferation of low quality goods and services especially in the public sectors. In effect the objective was to examine and unravel how effective qualitative analytic techniques can help to obtain best value for money as well as access the impact of purchasing in developing a quality management system in the cocoa industry, ultimately geared towards the customer’s satisfaction.  In addition, it provide specific recommendation to Ghana Cocoa Board to  take a critical look at issues pertaining to total quality by drawing up a quality policy and manual. The call for strict adherence to rules and regulations in public procurement cannot be over emphasized, the famous 6 Rs definition of public procurement places the demand squarely on the shoulders of all concerned to ensure that goods, works & services are acquired- at the Right Price, Right Quantity, Right Quality, Right Place, Right Time and from the Right Source-during the procurement process. Conducting monitoring and evaluation in public procurement holds enormous benefits. It provides an avenue for constant feedback, easy identification of potential challenges, opportunity to incorporate innovation and track progress.(ppaghana.org, 2013. So we designed this article to unravel the state of affairs and pin point the valuable role the procurement function can play in curbing the situation through quality management function being run on acceptable procedures and practices and to suggest procedures acceptable to the procurement professionals as contained in the Public Procurement Act, 663, of 2003 in Ghana.

Keywords: Ghana, Ghana cocoa board, Quality Management, role of procurement

Sale of Loans and Credit Risk Management Practices of Savings and Loans Companies: Evidence from an Emerging Economy (Published)

The current study assessed the credit risk management practices of saving and loans companies in the Sunyani Municipality of the Bono region of Ghana. With a positivist paradigm, the study adopted a descriptive research design. Using purposive sampling method, a sample size of fifty seven (57) respondents was utilized. The study revealed a strong and positive correlation between credit risk management and financial performance of the savings and loans companies. Erratic policy rates were found to have negative impact on the operations and profitability of the companies. The study recommends robust supervision and strict adherence to sound credit management practices for sustainability and profitability of the savings and loans companies.

Keywords: Credit Risk Management, Ghana, Sunyani Municipality, savings and loans companies

Incentives and Decisions: Voters’ Knowledge of the Laws on Vote Buying and its Implications for Ghana’s Democracy (Published)

This paper sought to investigate whether the incentives given to voters affect voters’ decisions at the polls. It also looks at whether Ghanaians are conversant with the laws and legislations on elections and for that matter vote buying. The mixed method approach with explanatory sequential design was employed for the study. The population for the study comprised the entire group of potential voters in the Shama District in the Western Region who are 18 years and above. Probability and non-probability sampling methods were employed to select the sample of district, communities and respondents for the study. Data from questionnaire was triangulated with interviews. The Pearson Chi-Square was used in finding significant differences. The p-value is the probability for showing differences and a critical value of alpha=.05 was adopted for sig differences in the statistical analysis. It was concluded that the economic status or the income level of electorates has no effects on decisions about the person to vote for. There is a relationship between vote buying incentives and voters’ decisions. This makes incentives effective in winning votes.it was therefore recommended that the governments should make it a point to reduce poverty by enhancing wealth redistribution by creating or providing jobs especially for the rural folks.

Keywords: Democracy, Ghana, Vote Buying, Voting Incentives, electoral laws, voters

Determinants of Teacher Motivation and Job Performance at Senior High Schools in Greater Accra Region, Ghana (Published)

This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting teacher motivation and job performance/productivity at senior high schools in the Greater Accra region, Ghana. The study is quantitative in nature and survey approach was employed to gather data from 676 respondents out of sample size of 700. Descriptive statistical test as well as Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmation Factor Analysis were used to analyze the data obtained from the respondents. In addition, tools such as mean, standard deviation, frequency and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) were employed. The study found that motivations of teachers are low due to the lack of such variables as medical allowance, accommodation allowance, pension scheme, career advancement, recognition and low level of salary compare to their colleagues with the same qualifications in other government’s institutions and this is impacting negatively on their job performance. It was suggested by the teachers that major paradigm shift in Ghana education policies in connection to factors such as school governance, remuneration, safety and security, as well as assessments and evaluations needed to be revised for an improved performance.

Keywords: Determinants, Ghana, Job Performance, Motivation, Senior High Schools, Teacher

Evaluating the Impact of Counseling Services in Senior High Schools in Ghana: The Case Of Okere District. (Published)

Lately, it is common to observe violence and other deviant behaviors among senior high schools. This many have attributed it to poor implementation of guidance and counseling services rendered in most SHS in the country and the Okere District. The primary research purpose was to assess the importance of guidance and counseling units in some selected Senior High Schools in the Okere District. The nature of the research was descriptive, with the questionnaire as the primary data collection instrument. The research employed simple random sampling and purposive sampling methods to select students and teachers, respectively. Statistical tools employed were mean, charts, percentages, crosstabulation, and ANOVA. The findings revealed that most Senior High Schools in the District render orientation service. The findings also revealed that lack of training physical facilities, inadequate funds, missing pertinent reference materials, few guidance and counseling sessions, and no involvement of peer counselors impede the implementation of guidance and counseling units in the District. Finally, the findings also revealed guidance and counseling services rendered in the schools in the District affect students’ academic performance. Therefore, it is recommended that schools in the District be assisted in improving their guidance and counseling units since it will affect students’ academic performance when well carried out.

Keywords: Ghana, Guidance, Okere district, counseling services senior high schools

Advertising Indigenous Herbal Products: A Case of Four Herbal Companies in the Swedru Municipality, Ghana (Published)

This study looks at Advertising of indigenous herbal products using Swedru Municipality as a case study. The research was designed to examine the extent to which advertising tools are used to reach consumers with herbal products and how consumers respond to these tools. Qualitative content analysis was employed for the study. The Methodology for the study dealt with the sample chosen and the research instruments used. A sample of thirty-two (32) respondents was chosen for the study. In-depth interviews and documents were the research instruments used. Based on the outlined objectives, it was found out that advertisement is one of the major communication tools that can influence the buying attitudes of consumers. The study was able to establish that advertisements of herbal products should be done frequently with appropriate advertising tools and persuasive messages for the fact that it draws consumers’ attention to the products, thereby giving market power to the firm. It is therefore very important for the herbal firm to fully focus on effective advertising tools like radio, television, outdoor and other traditional forms to advertise the herbal products because advertising is a powerful means for creating awareness and positive perception in the minds of consumers.

Keywords: Advertising, Ghana, Indigenous herbal products

Whistleblowing and its link on Corporate Governance and Compliance: The case of Financial Companies listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange (Published)

Whistleblowing in institutions is key for corporate governance and compliance in organizations. In this study we determine whether there exist whistleblowing mechanisms and policies in the financial institutions listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE). The study also sought to examine the level of staff knowledge and perceptions on those policies and procedures.  A two-stage sampling scheme was adopted in selecting the samples. Four out of nine banks listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange were selected using simple random sample. For each bank selected two branches in greater Accra were included randomly in the sample from which 100 was selected. The results of the analysis indicated that majority of the respondents were eager to blow the whistle at all cost, however education on knowledge on procedures for reporting at the time of appointment was little. Out of the 80 participants who took part in the study, none of them responded no to reporting wrongdoing even when their report will lead to the closure of the company, or dismissal. The chi-square test of independence also shows that, there is a link between whistleblowing, corporate governance and compliance in the financial companies listed on Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE). It is recommended that organizations carry out periodical education on policies and procedures on whistleblowing to increase the consciousness of all employees.

Keywords: Compliance, Corporate Governance, Ghana, Whistleblowing, financial companies, stock exchange

Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry: The Case Study of the Tamale Metropolis (Published)

The study investigated factors affecting customer satisfaction in the hospitality industry in Tamale by assessing the extent to which staff’s personal adaptation to customers’ expectation, friendliness, physical environment and employee’s emotional stability influence customer satisfaction. The study employed a cross-sectional survey and adopted a quantitative approach. A purposive sampling method was used in selecting five (5) hotels rated between 1 to 3-star in Tamale. Convenience sampling technique was used to sample 200 respondents. The results revealed adaptation to customers’ need, friendliness, the ambience of the hotels and staff’s emotional stability significant to customer satisfaction. The study found a notable correlation between customer satisfaction and the quality of service. Direct personnel services, room quality was also found as key determinates influencing customer satisfaction in the hotels than the outside environment. The research therefore, recommends hotel management to review and evaluate their customer database to include guest personality traits.

Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Ghana, Personality, physical evidence, staff service quality

The Impact of Covid-19 Induced Capital Flight on the Bond and Foreign Exchange Markets In Ghana (Published)

This paper provides evidence on the adverse effects of Covid-19 induced capital flight on the bond and foreign exchange markets in Ghana. Based on trend analysis, the study found significant portfolio reversals after the country recorded its first case of Covid-19 on March 12, 2020. This excessive capital flight had a far-reaching adverse impact on nominal exchange rate. Precisely, the Ghanaian Cedi shed earlier gains recorded in the first half of the year against the US Dollar. The prime contribution of this study is that it provides insight into the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the bond and foreign exchange markets in Ghana. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in the sense that no prior study has examined the response of the domestic bond market and nominal exchange rate to unanticipated global shocks in Ghana. The findings imply that, over-reliance on foreign portfolio inflows renders the bond and foreign exchange market vulnerable to unanticipated external shocks. Thus, the Covid-19 pandemic is a wake-up call for operationalization of policies to strategically develop the domestic bond market in order to build a wider domestic investor base to cushion the Ghanaian economy from such shocks.

Keywords: COVID-19, Foreign Exchange Market, Ghana, bond market, capital fight

Perceptions, Challenges and Coping Strategies of Women in Political Leadership Positions (Published)

This study examined the experiences of females in political leadership positions in the Sunyani West District. Qualitative approach was adopted with a case study design to explore the experiences of the women leaders. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to select 14 participants comprising eight (8) political party executives, four (4) Assembly women and two (2) women who were parliamentary candidates. The data were collected using interview and analysed through thematic procedure. The findings indicated that females in political leadership positions perceive leadership in three different ways as task-oriented, goal-oriented and people-oriented. Whatever way they perceived political leadership; they faced several challenges related to their personal lives, family and community. However, the main challenge facing females in political leadership positions in Sunyani West District is misconceptions about their capabilities as females. Females in political leadership positions cope with their challenges through self-motivation, creation of cordial relationship with male chauvinists and concentration on their potentials. The study recommended that female political leaders should focus on their output and achievements to show their capabilities in contributing meaningfully to society. There is an urgent need for opinion leaders such as chiefs, queen mothers, district chief executives and the public in general to discourage the unfair, unjust and unequal treatment sometimes meted out to women who occupy political leadership positions.

Keywords: Challenges, Coping Strategies, Ghana, Leadership, Political Leadership, Politics, Women

The Role of Micro Insurance on Poverty Reduction: A Study of Insurance Companies in Ghana (Published)

Purpose- The purpose of this paper to investigate, explore and assess the role of Micro-insurance in poverty reduction Design/ methodology/approach- This paper is a qualitative analysis based on three case studies. Non-probability sampling techniques are used for choosing the unit of analysis which resulted in 4 firms (4 managers). Also, data were collected via a questionnaire and an in-depth interview. Findings- The study identified that Micro-insurance provides financial support to the poor in the event of a disaster, social protection against disasters and shocks, savings, employment, and as well as enhances asset accumulation among clients. The study found that the lack of innovative micro-insurance product, inadequate distribution channels, the lack of supportive micro-insurance legal framework, uncompetitive pricing of micro-insurance products, low government support in micro-insurance programs, low-income levels of respondents, the religious or cultural factors influence the demand of insurance products and low public trust are the factors that affect the demand of micro-insurance products. Also, the study found that the development of innovative products, establishing processes that build trust in clients, instituting efficient service delivery channels, documentation should be simplified and the government should support micro-insurance products are the ways to increase patronage of micro-insurance products.Research limitations- the sample size is still limited and in the future, a quantitative analysis should be used. The study is limited in terms of geographical area. The findings of the study are more likely to hold for another Sub-Saharan context. However, the applicability of these findings to other contexts needs further investigation. Originality/value- while interest in micro-insurance is increasing in emerging markets, there is little known and written on micro-insurance. Therefore, the role of micro-insurance has not been explored so far.


Keywords: Constraints, Ghana, Insurance, Microcredit, Poverty Alleviation, microinsurance, sub-Saharan Africa

Factors Militating Against the Production of Local Rice in Ghana: The Mediating Role of Open Innovation (Published)

The study reports the factors militating against the production of local rice in Ghana with a mediating effect of open innovation to boost rice production. This study employs a cross-sectional survey to gather the views of 250 rice farmers. A self-administered survey questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data was analyzed using AMOS 20.0 software package. Findings from the study indicate that land tenure system, inadequate infrastructure and water control system are the factors militating against the production of local rice in Ghana. Moreover, the study found a negative relationship between land tenure system and output of rice. However, the study shows that there is a direct and positive relationship between open innovation and output of rice production in Ghana. The study, therefore, recommends that, infrastructure is provided in the rice producing areas to enhance rice production by investing in the area of road networks, rice-milling equipment such as pre-cleaners, destoners that separate stones and heavy impurities from grains, hullers, polishers, paddy separators, aspirators and graders to ensure post-harvest product quality.

Keywords: Ghana, Infrastructure, land tenure system, open innovation, water control system

Managing Students’ Aggressive Behaviour in Physical Education Practical Lessons; The Teacher’s Role (Published)

The study examined the managerial approaches towards the aggressive behaviour exhibited by the Basic School Pupils in the Offinso South municipality of Ghana. The stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used to sampled (21) Teachers, and thirty two (32) pupils over a period of four weeks from four (4) Primary Schools. Anecdotal Record technique and questionnaires were the instruments used to gather data on the various respondents. The research revealed that there were some Aggressive Behaviours keep increasing in the physical education practical lessons. Evidence from the data suggested that a total of seven (7) aggressive behaviours were exhibited by pupils. Behaviours such as kicking, biting, verbal attacks, and Noise making were recorded as the most frequently occurring aggressive behaviours. Punishments and redirection of children’s attention were the most approaches used by teachers. It is recommended that teachers should enforce the Ghana Education Service code of discipline for Primary Schools but in some situations, they have to be allowed to use their own discretions to decide the type of punishments to be meted out to pupils.

Keywords: Aggressive Behaviour, Approaches, Biting, Ghana, Kicking, and verbal attacks