Social Alienation in Ghalib Halsa’s Novel Sultana (Published)
Citation: Roz Sabah Shaaban (2022) Social Alienation in Ghalib Halsa’s Novel Sultana, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.10, No.1, Pp.42-59
Abstract: The present study examines manifestations of social alienation in the novel Sulṭāna (1987). A basic premise of the study is that contemporary mankind exists in a state of cultural alienation shock, due to successive waves of tremendous change in many aspects of life and many components of social and cultural existence. To this must be added the political changes experienced by the Arab world after World War II, causing it be become divided into several small countries, followed by these countries’ struggles for independence and their defeats against Israel in 1948, the war of the Tripartite Aggression against Egypt in 1956 and the defeat of 1967 against Israel. All of these events caused Arabs to shrink into themselves and wallow in feelings of disappointment, defeat and failureGhālib Halsā’s novel Sulṭāna was chosen because of all the novels by this writer, it is the one that is most strongly imbued with the local atmosphere of his homeland, Jordan. In fact, the entire work reflects almost no other environment. In this environment social alienation is ever present. The novel shows how relations based on family solidarity and agricultural and tribal traditions have been transformed into commercial relations, leading to a disintegration of the family. The novel describes Jordan’s countryside, its problems, its dilemmas, its clans and its tribes. It also moves to the city, where it focuses on revealing social flaws and behaviors in times in which authentic values have broken down.
Keywords: Ghalib Halsa, novel, social alienation, sultāna
Outsider Characters in Ghalib Halsa’s Novels: The Question as an Example (Published)
Fictional characters in general, and the way they are built in a novel, have always been central to the genre production and appreciation. Writers exert strenuous efforts in creating their characters; and critics and readers often look into the artistic features in a literary character. During modernity and post-modernity, ‘outsider’ characters, in particular, have received special attention. Arab novelist Ghalib Halasa was one of the writers who forged a brilliant portrayal of loner characters, especially women. Unlike their marginal status in the society, Halasa’s female characters are influential– an audacious dimension that is worthy of discussion. This study seeks to identify the loner characters, particularly females, in Ghalib Halasa’s novels, taking The Question as an example. Specifically, the study will try to provide answers to three questions:
1. What are the most important levels through which loner characters were depicted?
2. Were loner characters a product of the society?
3. Why was Halasa keen to target female outsider characters, in particular?
Keywords: Ghalib Halsa, Levels of loneliness Outsider characters, Modernism, peripheral characrer