Tag Archives: Genome

Effects of Epigenetic Groups & Chromosomal Proteins on Human Genome Expression by way of its genes and Universal Reactions of Matter (Published)

When chemical compounds are added onto single genes, they attach or bind to a gene/s or chromosomal proteins. The attachment or binding of these chemicals cause modifications or changes in the activities of the genes (with no change in DNA sequence). These functional changes of the genes are referred to as Epigenetic Modifications whereas the study of the epigenetic modification and its causative agents is known as Epigenetics. The epigenetic group (chemical) attached to a gene regulates the function of the gene without any change in the DNA sequence. The key objective of this study is to impart the fact that human Genome is a supersensitive molecular machine based on its responses to epigenetic groups & chromosomal proteins. Cancer is a group of diseases arising in part from:

1. Chromosomal abnormalities and mutations in tumor-suppressor genes & oncogenes, and

2. Epigenetic modifications.

The main aim of universal reactions of matter is to improve or to make better the living standards and to create the safest conditions possible for humans in each country of the planet (Earth). Based on the main aim of universal reactions of matter, China has become the model country on Earth with surprising & drastic growth in economy, science and technology; and also, being one of the safest countries in the world for its residents & tourists.

Citation: Feleke Eriso (2022) Effects of Epigenetic Groups & Chromosomal Proteins on Human Genome Expression by way of its genes and Universal Reactions of Matter, European Journal of Biology and Medical Science Research, Vol.10, No.3, pp.26-58,

Keywords: Cancer, Genome, acetylases, acetylation, deacetylases, epigenetic groups, methylation, modifications

Genomic diseases in humans & weapons of universal reactions of matter (Published)

Genomic diseases are caused by structural as well as numerical changes or abnormalities in DNA/s of the Genome. The genomic (genetic) abnormality can range from a discrete mutation in a single base (point mutation) of a single gene in a DNA molecule to gross abnormality of whole DNA molecule involving the addition or subtraction of entire DNA or set of DNAs. The key objective of this study is to spectacularly demonstrate the fact that Genome is the only wonderful molecule that synthesizes itself & all genomic-things using their nutritive substances as raw materials in their compatible environment.  Listing genomic diseases and causative agents including universal reactions of matter as materials & methods and then dealing with them in an interpretive approach in Results and Discussion section had been taken to be the best option or procedure of design.  Results are very concentratedly displayed together with the causative agents in Results and Discussion section particularly in videos of Figure 1 and Figure 2. Genome is the only thing (molecule) that synthesizes all genomic-things & itself. This is why that when the genome becomes an abnormal genome due to abnormal changes in it, it synthesizes abnormal individuals, i.e., persons having genomic diseases. In other words, abnormal genome synthesizes abnormal individuals whereas the normal genome synthesizes normal individuals as in a controlled experiment.Structural or numerical changes, being unnatural in DNA molecule/s of the human Genome result in genomic diseases (disorders). Weaponizing universal reactions of matter and utilizing them in war have been ascertained that it can delete: -humans, all other forms of genomic-things, and science as well as technology we have including economic wealth in cash (that can be burnt just like trash papers in a basket) from the surface of this planet within few hours!!

Keywords: DNA, Genome, abnormality, disorder, gene, genomic disease, weaponizing

Dismissal of the Fake Term Called Living-Thing by Genomic-Thing and Universal Reactions of Matter (Published)

The fact that the sciences treated with terms Biology, Living-things, and Nonliving-things had been proved to be absurdly fake and were replaced by true sciences of Genomology. The key objectives of this paper are to verify the dismissal of the fake term called Living-thing, replacing by the correct one known as Genomic-thing based on evidences and to forward three different universal reactions of matter. Each of the evidences or each of universal reactions of matter is a type of methodology in its targetful approach and each of them is accompanied by a verifying finding. The term Living-thing had been irreversibly dismissed by spectacular & concrete scientific evidences about its fakeness and Genomic-thing was found to be a rewardingly the best (perfect) term to replace it in the sciences of Genomology.The three universal reactions of matter are genomic reaction (in genomic-things only), chemical reaction (in nongenomic-things only involving rearrangement of electrons outside the nuclei of atoms), and nuclear reaction (inside the nuclei of atoms). The only reason for why biologists had admitted that they could not define what a living-thing was and stayed with fake sciences of Biology until now, was because they didn’t realize that genome was: ►unique to genomic-things, and ►the automatic synthesizer of each individual in each species of all genomic-things from genomic viruses up to humans. Now, Genomologists, Chemists, and Physicists are at the very good stage of development to understand one another with the same language of Universal Reactions of Matter and they will have to work together more concerned than ever before.

Citation: Feleke Eriso(2022) Dismissal of the Fake Term Called Living-Thing by Genomic-Thing and Universal Reactions of Matter, European Journal of Biology and Medical Science Research, Vol.10, No.2, pp.8-44

 

Keywords: Antisense, Atomic number, Genome, genomic reaction, genomic-things, half-life, mRNA, ncRNA, nonliving-things, nuclear reaction, radioactive decay, sense

Genomology (Published)

The word biology is derived from the Greek words/bios/ meaning living-things, and /logos/ meaning study and is defined as the science of living-things. Then, the rest of things or matter are inevitably termed nonliving-things, having a paralyzing contradiction with the “Law of Conservation of Matter” which states that “a matter (thing) is neither created nor destroyed”. Thus, the very root of the term Biology from which it was derived & how it was devised had been wrong in the scientific categorization of matter (things). To call matter as nonliving-thing/s is completely wrong and usage of the term nonliving-thing/s in biological sciences is one of the major reasons for the fact that the sciences of Biology are fake. Biology is defined as the study of living-things and then it has been admitted that a living-thing cannot be defined!! The key objective of this study is to discard the fake sciences of Biology, replacing by true sciences of Genomology and to get this achievement approved (endorsed) in Global Science Forum.. Comparison between the sciences of Biology and those of Genomology was employed using 22 different concrete evidences. Face to face & spectacular demonstration of how fake sciences of Biology are taught by confused and misleading Professors can be observed in the video lesson presented by Professor Dave & by another in Fig. 2, video 3. The two main sources of error for being confused of Professors such as Professor Dave are: using the term living-thing where the opposite of it is nonliving-thing which is ridiculously wrong because it contradicts with the “Law of Conservation of Matter” in science!!!!, and being unable to define what a living-thing is. Daughter viral genomes & viral proteins are produced from those of host cell by: , digesting host cell’s genome into nucleotides, and , digesting host cell’s proteins into amino acids;  so that these nucleotides are used as the raw materials (building blocks) for the replication of daughter viral Genomes and the amino acids are used as the raw materials for the synthesis of daughter viral Proteins. Note that the chemical composition of genomes found in all species of all genomic-things is the same. Building blocks of all kinds of genome in all species of all genomic-things are nucleotides. Genome is unique to genomic-things. Fake sciences of Biology together with the term biology itself are absolutely and irreversibly replaced by true sciences of Genomology. The word Genomology or genomic-thing is derived from the unique automatic molecule termed genome. In other words, genome is a unique automatic molecule found only in genomic-things.A genomic-thing is defined as the product of reaction of: its Genome & its nutritive substances in its compatible environment. Genomological sciences are collectively referred to as superscience because of the amazingly automatic function of the single molecule termed Genome, being the only molecule capable of self-copying reproduction and synthesizing all other nongenome molecules, organelles, genomic-viruses, cells, tissues, organs, systems, and the entire body of each individual organism in every species of all genomic-things. Therefore, the scientists who study or deal with this superscience are known as superscientists or genomologists. The male & female of both free-living & parasitic generations of Strongyloides stercoralis are exactly the same, being synthesized by the same genome and the type of reproduction in both the free-living & parasitic generations is Sexual. Hereafter, i.e., after knowing how wrong the terms Biology & living-thing (with its opposite term) are, teaching fake sciences of Biology is equivalent to: giving poison to our student children of all human races of the world instead of milk, and, taking stool with spoons into our mouths!!!!

Keywords: Biology, Genome, fake sciences, genomic-things, genomology, living-things, nongenomic-things, nonliving-things

Genome-sequence, zygote, differentiation of embryonic stem cells into structurally and functionally different specialized body cells in humans: there is no “junk DNA” at all in the human genome!!!! (Published)

About 250 specialized cell types are organized into tissues, organs, and organsystems in the body of humans. Differentiation of cells both in structure & function generally depends on gene expression rather than on any changes in the nucleotide sequence of the cell’s genome. The key objective of this paper was to verify that no “junk DNA” at all in the human genome and to confirm the fact that the synthesizer of generations of Homo sapiens & of all other genomic-things is the Genome. The cell types in a multicellular organism become different from one another because they synthesize and accumulate different sets of RNA and protein molecules. They generally do this without altering the sequence of their DNA with the exception of B & T lymphocytes in the immune system. Differentiation occurs because specific genes in each cell are turned on and off in complex regulated pattern. A stem cell is an unspecialized cell that can divide without limit as needed and can, under specific conditions, differentiate into specialized cells. The stem cells derived from a zygote are described as:- totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, and oligopotent stem cells. In contrast, a unipotent cell is fully specialized and can only reproduce to generate more of its own specific cell type. The primary mechanism by which genes are turned “on” or “off” is through transcription factors. A transcription factor is one of a class of proteins that bind to specific genes on the DNA molecule and either promote or inhibit their transcription. Transcription factors regulate gene expression. Transcription factors affect the binding of RNA polymerase to a particular gene on the DNA molecule. Researchers have recently developed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human adult stem cells. The induced pluripotent stem cells do function like embryonic stem cells. Non-coding RNAs are a group of RNA transcripts that do not necessarily code for proteins instead they perform the task of regulatory functions. The science of genomic-things  is superior to all branches of natural science because the scientist himself, who creates all other nonbiological sciences, is a genomic-thing and belongs to biological sciences. The science of genomic-things is a superscience being the science of priority to invest in. In the automatic functional & structural performance of human genome, every component of it is indispensably useful and none of it is junk DNA at all!! 100% of genome’s components, in all species of genomic-things from biological viruses up to humans, are unavoidably useful in the task of synthesizing the individuals & populations of its species in different ecosystems on Earth let alone those of human genome!!!! The genome synthesizes genomic-things & their products using:- proteins (structural & functional) translated from its transcripts, and its transcripts directly without translating.

Keywords: Differentiation, Gene expression, Genome, Non-coding RNA, Stem cell, Transcription factors, embryonic stem cell

Genome-sequence, zygote, differentiation of embryonic stem cells into structurally and functionally different specialized body cells in humans: there is no “junk DNA” at all in the human genome (Published)

About 250 specialized cell types are organized into tissues, organs, and organsystems in the body of humans. Differentiation of cells both in structure & function generally depends on gene expression rather than on any changes in the nucleotide sequence of the cell’s genome. The key objective of this paper was to verify that no “junk DNA” at all in the human genome and to confirm the fact that the synthesizer of generations of Homo sapiens & of all other genomic-things is the Genome. The cell types in a multicellular organism become different from one another because they synthesize and accumulate different sets of RNA and protein molecules. They generally do this without altering the sequence of their DNA with the exception of B & T lymphocytes in the immune system. Differentiation occurs because specific genes in each cell are turned on and off in complex regulated pattern. A stem cell is an unspecialized cell that can divide without limit as needed and can, under specific conditions, differentiate into specialized cells. The stem cells derived from a zygote are described as:- totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, and oligopotent stem cells. In contrast, a unipotent cell is fully specialized and can only reproduce to generate more of its own specific cell type. The primary mechanism by which genes are turned “on” or “off” is through transcription factors. A transcription factor is one of a class of proteins that bind to specific genes on the DNA molecule and either promote or inhibit their transcription. Transcription factors regulate gene expression. Transcription factors affect the binding of RNA polymerase to a particular gene on the DNA molecule. Researchers have recently developed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human adult stem cells. The induced pluripotent stem cells do function like embryonic stem cells. Non-coding RNAs are a group of RNA transcripts that do not necessarily code for proteins instead they perform the task of regulatory functions. The science of genomic-things  is superior to all branches of natural science because the scientist himself, who creates all other nonbiological sciences, is a genomic-thing and belongs to biological sciences. The science of genomic-things is a superscience being the science of priority to invest in. In the automatic functional & structural performance of human genome, every component of it is indispensably useful and none of it is junk DNA at all!! 100% of genome’s components, in all species of genomic-things from biological viruses up to humans, are unavoidably useful in the task of synthesizing the individuals & populations of its species in different ecosystems on Earth let alone those of human genome!!!! The genome synthesizes genomic-things & their products using:- proteins (structural & functional) translated from its transcripts, and its transcripts directly without translating. Biological sciences are brought up to the status of superscience (the science of genomic-things) by Feleke’s Genome Model of genomic-things. Scientists of biological sciences are authentically called superscientists because biological sciences which are their fields of study have been spectacularly developed to the status of superscience. Establishing a Global Center of Superscience (GCS) is crucial.

Keywords: Differentiation, Gene expression, Genome, Non-coding RNA, Stem cell, Transcription factors, embryonic stem cell