Nature of Language, Speech and Communication Disorders (Review Completed - Accepted)
Speech, language and communication disorders are most common form of disorder among children in the world. The speech and language disorders are classified as expressive language disorder, phonological disorder, and communication disorder not-otherwise-specified (DSM-IV), mixed receptive-expressive language disorder and stuttering. Each category of speech and language impairment is prevalent among children from 5-15%. These disorders are mainly heritable and thus their genetic factor plays an important role in influencing these disorders. Genetic basis behind this defect is studied thoroughly in this review. Literature findings have showed that the main genes responsible for speech and language disorders are FOXP1 and FOXP2 genes which are identified through genome study linkages and genomic screening. Further research is required to UN reveal the biological pathways behind this deficit and to improve the treatment methods. Though various genetic factors play a vital role, other environmental factors also influences the speech and language disorders. The environmental factors must be considered importantly during childhood who already has genetic risk disorder. The important environmental influences related to children’s success or failures in reading are mainly educational experiences and home environment. Children’s literacy is mainly gained through the effect of home environment and through their oral language skills and reading comprehension ability when compared to accurate reading. Children who have such disorders must receive assistance from the speech-language pathologist. Speech-language pathologists work with children, families and schools to assist a child’s communication. This therapy can be useful to children all through their educational trajectory for the understanding of language, vocabulary and reading which is more complex. Their transition must be from learning to employment along with the children.