Tag Archives: Genetic diversity

Y-chromosome variation in Basrah population (Published)

DNA profiles of Y-chromosome are useful in forensic science and population genetic.  this study conducted a total of 191 unrelated male’s analysis of the Y-chromosome verity in different regions of Basrah. This variety was explored by utilizing a system of 17 markers. For a uniparental system, observed the vast majority of   haplogroups in the population of Basrah (R1b, J2, E1b1b, G2a, and J1) Originally from the Middle East and later spread to Western Eurasia.In all likelihood, Thirty percent of Y-chromosomes Landings   from distant, inaccessible regions.   This paper evaluates the level of haplotype diversity, as well as its implication for statistics. The distinctive extent of long geogenetic input observed for the Y-chromosomes seems to Display that gene flow events can mainly involve males in this region.

Bassim Muften Ohied, Adnan Issa Al-Badran (2022) Y-chromosome variation in Basrah population, International Journal of Dentistry, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Oral Hygiene, Vol. 4, No,1, pp, 39-49

Keywords: Basrah population, Genetic diversity, STR, Y chromo¬some, forensic genetics

Germplasm, conservation and its potential role in crop improvement (Published)

Genetic resources supply the basic mechanics that allow plants to convert soil, water, and sunlight into something useful for human consumption. One of the most sustainable approaches for conserving precious genetic resources in the long run is to use plant genetic resources in crop development, followed by adoption, cultivation, and consumption or marketing of improved cultivars by farmers. This review’s goal is to describe the challenges surrounding the use of genetic resources in crop development. Crop genetic resources are the foundation of agricultural output, and their conservation and application have yielded major economic benefits. However, because crop genetic resources are essentially public assets, private incentives for conservation of genetic resources may fall short of meeting public goals. To effectively harness the existing resources in further valuable ways, a significantly greater characterization and knowledge of genetic diversity and its distribution is required. It’s critical to plan collecting excursions and conservation operations efficiently. The value of diversity lies in its application. The most basic method of conservation is to combine multiple ex situ and in situ conservation strategies in a complimentary manner. Biotechnology provides us with a new set of tools for studying genetic resources, as well as conservation measures. The utilization of distantly related trait carriers as donors for the desired traits has become more possible thanks to gene technology. Given the restricted national plant breeding capacity, international germplasm exchanges will continue to be vital in influencing new climatic and climate conditions.

 

Keywords: Conservation, Genetic diversity, crop improvement, germplasm

Genetic Diversity of Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica) by Agro Morphological markers (Published)

14 quantitative traits were studies from 30 genotypes of Urtica dioica grown under shade-nert at National University of Lesotho in a Completely Randomized Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates.  The total variation amongst and within the treatments was detected using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), F-test 5% significance level. The pattern analysis was deployed to detect the relationship amongst the accessions. The ANOVA showed a highly significant difference (P< 0.01) among the accessions on all phenotypic traits measured as obtained from analysis of variance. The LSD comparison of the means for various traits ranked them in descending order. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) identified two main groups (group A and B) with significant genetic distance between both the accessions and morphological traits. The groups were further sub-grouped into i, ii, iii and iv to show similarities among the accessions. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that plant height, length of internodes, number of leaves and number of nodes are the most important traits in determining the variation amongst accessions.

Keywords: Genetic diversity, Principal Component Analysis, U. dioica, hierarchical cluster analysis, stinging nettle

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM TYPHOIDES) CULTIVARS IN SEMI-ARID NORTHERN NIGERIA (Published)

Farmers in the semi-arid lands of Africa have traditionally relied on genetic landraces of sorghum, and in drier parts, pearl millet for farming. Over the last two decades, several seed-related studies have been conducted in semi-arid Africa to improve farmers’ access to quality seeds of dry land cereals and legumes. These have indicated that genetic diversity which is at stake is a major resource. However, there is an undeniable evidence of the erosion of crop genetic diversity. The aim of the study is to evaluate genetic variability of pearl millet cultivars obtained from four semi-arid villages of northern-eastern Nigeria namely Dagaceri and Kaska. It should be noted that all the 42 sampled respondents in all the study areas are males and heads of households. This is because in all the areas household heads were used. They are all males and the most active in agricultural practices they also have the final say in the activities of their household. A total of 25 pearl millet genotypes were collected based on diverse morphological data recorded on the field using Participatory Rural Appraisal. The main approach to the present study is to link the advanced biological technique (laboratory study) on genetic characteristics with social science field methodologies. The techniques used in the laboratory analysis are the Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and Multiplexed Single Oligonucleotide Amplification. Out of the twenty-five pearl millet varieties identified, a total of twenty eight per cent are of the early maturing types. Laboratory studies revealed that genetic compositions of all inventoried pearl millet are not the same. The difference within and between the landraces was estimated using molecular marker (AFLP) and from the data it was noted that farmers’ husbandry practice resulted to the isolation of group ideotypes, making landrace names quid pro quo of genetic diversity. It was recommended that because farmers’ methods of selection play an important role in genetic management and conservation, it should be linked with the formal seed system to enhance genetic management and control genetic erosion.

Keywords: Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, Genetic diversity, Pearl millet, northern-eastern Nigeria