Language and Gender (Published)
The differences between men and women in using language have been studied long time before. This paper is an attempt to investigate variations in gender language use. In addition, it highlights the definitions of some gender-linguistic terms. On the basis of these differences and changes, the paper also tries to make some explanation to these differences and changes. Issues such as the following have been covered in this paper: Differences in men’s and women’s speech, Women talk more/less than men, Women break the ‘rules’ of turn-taking less than men, Women use more standard forms than men, and Women’s speech is less direct/assertive than men’s. Moreover, it discusses matters such as: the differences from the aspects of pronunciation, intonation, vocabulary, syntax, manners, attitudes, and non-verbal differences in using language between men and women.
The impact of Gender in EFL classroom has always been an issue of discussion. With the difference of social and cultural background, the role of gender differs from nation to nation. In Bangladesh, gender role is defined based on social, cultural, and traditional beliefs. This study is an attempt to find out whether genders of learners as well as genders of teachers create barriers in EFL learning in Bangladesh. In the study a number of 198 students responded to the questionnaires prepared for a survey to find out the impact of gender of students and teachers in EFL classroom. Adding to this, 20 students and 9 teachers from a university further illustrated this issue by participating in semi-structured open ended interviews. The findings of this mixed method study reveal that the socio-culturally defined gender role of male and female in the society impacts inside English as a foreign language class in Bangladesh. Self-efficacy of teachers and learners may help address the issue. In this regard, emphasis may be put on teacher self-efficacy to raise awareness among the teachers and learner self-efficacy to help learners to consciously avoid gender discrimination in classroom at the tertiary level.
Student Variables and Choice of Christian Religious Knowledge among senior secondary School Students in cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
This study assessed student variables and choice of Christian Religious Knowledge among secondary school students in Cross River State. To achieve this purpose, two research questions were put forward and transformed into two null hypotheses. A review of related literature was carried out to examine what has already been documented on the phenomenon under study. The ex-post facto research design was considered most suitable for achieving the purpose of this study. The simple random sampling technique and proportionate sampling technique were used in selecting the sample used for the study. A structured questionnaire titled student variables and choice of Christian religious knowledge questionnaire (SVCCRKQ) was the instrument used for collection of data in the study. The reliability of the research instrument was established through the Cronbach Alpha reliability method. Chi-square statistical tool was used for data analysis. The findings obtained from analysis of data and hypotheses testing revealed that there is a significant influence of gender and interest on students’ choice of Christian Religious Knowledge in the study area. It was concluded that the gender of students cannot be a barrier when it comes to making choice of subject. Based on these findings it was recommended among others that students with low interest in Christian Religious Knowledge should be encouraged to see the subject as an important tool for developing good behaviour and peaceful co-existence.
The Role of Women in Agricultural Economy in Ethiopia: The Case of Aira Woreda in Western Wollega Zone, Oromiya Regional State (Published)
Women play active role in almost all aspects of agricultural activities across the world. However, their contribution is underestimated due to the deep rooted gender based division of labour in developing countries. So the study concentrated on the reflection of women’s role in agricultural economy in Aira woreda western wollega zone Oromiya regional state. The objective of this study is to assess the evidence based role of women in development in general and agricultural economy in particular. The study was conducted by using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The relevant data collection tools such as interview, Focus group discussion guideline and questionnaires were used. Using these method relevant data was gathered and these data were analyzed in descriptive way. It was found that women’s role is more important for economic development in general and agricultural development in particular. These findings also indicate that women play a significant role in almost all aspects of agricultural activities such as crop production, animal husbandry, domestic and other income generating activities. Finally the study has concluded that the role of women is important for economic development in general and effective development of agricultural sector in particular. Based on the findings the researcher recommends that, education is the most important tools to aware the existing social barriers that undermine the role of women in agricultural activities and also multifaceted efforts have to be made to avoid harmful traditional perceptions that hinder the participation of women in agricultural sector.
The African people have varying behaviors, mannerisms, beliefs, thought patterns and way of interaction and all of these differences formed their culture and impacted their way of life. However, with the coming of the Europeans of Africa came cultural infiltration, pollution as well as alteration. This paper analyses Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart from the angle of masculinity and cultural clash as brought about by Westernization. The method of investigation is analytical and descriptive, using the formalist approach: that is looking at the actions, events, sentences and interactions of the characters in order to identity and discuss how males are portrayed, paying attention to issues of cultural realism, behaviors, actions and statements of the characters. The findings of the paper confirmed that African viewpoint of masculinity and cultural tends to be opposed to that of the Europeans, as the action and behaviors appropriate to a man in each society tend to differ. This led to different clashes from religious, cultural, ideological, to social beliefs. the conclusion that cultural clashes exist in the work and contributed to the final play out of the story, where the traditional belief system had to make way for Western ones; making things fall apart. The paper reveals that the male characters have both cultural and individual masculine idiosyncrasies and that the complexities of male roles confirm the pluralistic and slippery nature of masculinity.
Gender Difference in the Use of the Know-Want-Learn (KWL) and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students’ Performance in Social Studies (Published)
The study investigated gender differences among Junior Secondary Schools students’ taught Social Studies concepts using Know-Want-Learn (KWL) and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL) strategies in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State. Two research questions and two corresponding hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the quasi-experimental pre-test post-test control group design. The study involved three groups. Two experimental groups (Know-Want-Learn (KWL) differentiation learning strategy and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL) strategy) and a control group taught with traditional learning strategy. The sample consisted of 177 (90 male students and 87 female students) Junior Secondary School II (JSS II) students drawn from three Government Co-educational Secondary Schools. A 25 multiple choice test items, title “Social Studies Achievement Test (SOSAT)” developed by the researchers which covers two topics: Meaning and Consequences of Drug Abuse and Harmful Substances, and Dangers of Drug Trafficking in the Junior Secondary School II Social Studies Curriculum Scheme of Work was the research instrument. The instrument was validated and had reliability coefficient of 0.84 via Kuder-Richardson (KR-21) for a measure of its internal consistency. The relevant data gathered were analyzed with mean, standard deviation, graphical plot associated with Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA). The findings of the study showed that the effect of Know-Want-Learn (KWL) and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL) strategies on the performance of students is not gender dependent. Hence, it was recommended among others that teacher should adopt the teaching strategies in teaching Social Studies in Schools. Also, training workshops should be organized and sustained for Social Studies teachers across the country, exposing them to innovative strategies that encourage active learning and teaching for the 21st century learner and teacher.
Validity of Lesson Plan (RPP) Thematic Learning Model Based on Gender and Diversity (Kebhinekaan) (Published)
This study aims to determine the validity of the lesson plan on the thematic learning model based on gender and diversity values for grade IV students in Primary Schools in Aceh Barat District, Aceh. This research embraces research and development with stages 1) preliminary study, 2) design and development stage 3) testing phase. Validity test data obtained from the validation results by experts using a questionnaire instrument. The data obtained were analyzed using a Likert scale. The results obtained from this validity test showed a validity value of 90% with a very valid category.
Gender Experiences, Teacher Qualification and Students Outcome in English Language among Senior Secondary School Students in Ibadan (Published)
This study examines the relationship between gender experiences and teachers qualification on academic outcome in English language among senior secondary school students in Ibadan. The study adopted descriptive research design while the population is the whole secondary school students in Ibadan. It also adopts Simple random sampling techniques to select one hundred and fifty (150) secondary school students and one hundred and fifty (150) teachers of senior secondary school students totaling three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaires were the main instruments used for data collection in this study. The questionnaire tagged Gender and Academic Experience Questionnaire (GAEQ) and Teachers Qualification Questionnaire (TQQ). The instrument was validated by the researcher and pilot tested within two weeks which was later yielded r=0.72 and r=0.76 using alpha Cronbach reliability estimation. Based on this research finding, the following recommendations were made that; the individual differences of the learners should be taken care of based on their gender differences as regard their academic pursuit and the teacher of English language should try as much as possible to update themselves by attending seminars and conferences in order to acquire modern skills for their profession/discipline among others.
Boys and Girls in less developed countries like Ghana face different levels of cultural expectations. Cultural expectation from a Ghanaian Girl-Child appears to be a hindrance to Gender equality – equality of intellectual resource. To ascertain the intensity of the effect of subjecting school girls in Ghana into ‘domestic slavery’ as they do the house chores alone at the expense of their time to study, the study looks at the extent to which cultural expectation relating to house chores stands as an impediment to Ghanaian Girl-chid basic education. The study employed both conflict and cognitive theories in explaining how societies make inequality inevitable and manage to categorise some members in the society into groups of subordinates and superiors. In relation to gender and how girls are supressed through their cultural expectations, the theories serve as the theoretical framework for the study. The study adopted a heuristic case study which afforded me the opportunity to dive into the extent to which girls’ education are affected by their cultural responsibility of doing the household chores, leaving the boys untouched. I used observation and interview guide in collecting the data. One of the main findings is that about 52% of the time available for the girl-child to revise her school notes (what is taught in school) goes into such responsibilities whilst her male counterpart gets almost 98% of his time for revision. Another significant point noted is that leaving the house chores into the hands of girls as the boys have freedom to revise their studies makes gender inequality persistence and durable. Thus, gender inequalities associated with intellectual skills will continue to be persistent and durable.
Gender Difference in Fieldtrip and Video Technology Methods of Teaching Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools (Published)
The study investigated gender difference in fieldtrips and video-technology methods in teaching Social studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers state. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The research design adopted for this study was a quasi-experimental design which made use of pre-test, post-test, non-randomized, non-equivalent, control group design. From a population of 6, 240 Social Studies students which are made up of 2, 467 males and 3, 773 females of 13 schools in Port Harcourt LGA, 195 JSS II Social Studies students of three intact classes randomly drawn from three Government co-educational Secondary Schools constituted the sample for the study. The instrument for data collection was an achievement test constructed by the researcher, titled, “Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT)”. The Social studies Achievement Test (SSAT) is a multiple choice objective test consisting of twenty five (25) items with five options (A-E). The test instrument was validated and had a reliability coefficient of 0.87 through Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR20) formula as a measure of the instrument internal consistency. The study was conducted for seven (7) weeks. The second week for obtaining the pre-test score while the 7th week for posttest scores. The main instruction lasted for four (4) weeks. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were the statistical tools used for analyses. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study showed that there is a significant difference in the mean achievement score of male students taught with fieldtrips and those taught with video technology (F (1, 67) = 4.279, p = .042). However, it was found out that there is no significant difference in the mean achievement score of female students taught with fieldtrips and those taught with video technology (F(1, 62) = .391, p = .534). Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that fieldtrips and video technology could be effectively used to teach students irrespective of their gender. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers incorporate these teaching methods in teaching Social Studies especially concepts that require hands-on information.
Genderlect and Thanking (Published)
Thanking is one of the best ways to maintain harmony between people. As face is so fragile, thanking is of the effective ways to saves face of the interlocutors. This being said, thanking is an indispensable part of language. This study deals, not only with thanking as it is, it studies another topic and that is ‘gender’. Some studies showed that some linguistic items are used in different percentages among speakers when it comes to gender; say, females are more polite to some extent. Iraqi EFL learners are the sample of this study. This type of study, i.e. to know the differences between males and females concerning a specific area in linguistics is new and exciting. The aims of this study are the following:
- Finding out the strategies Iraqi EFL learners use concerning the speech act of thanking.
- Concluding whether female learners thank more than the males overall.
To fulfill these aims, it is hypothesized that:
- Iraqi EFL learners use the direct (or explicit) strategies to thank more than the indirect (or implicit) ones.
- Female learners use more thanking strategies than the male ones.
After presenting the literature, the researcher conducts a test to a random sample of Iraqi EFL fourth year students at the Department of English/ College of Education for Human Sciences.
University of Babylon (2016-2017) The results of the test are analysed as well. After applying the test to the sample, he researcher concluded that the students used the direct strategies to thank almost all the time and they even left some of the strategies (especially the indirect one) unused. This emphasized the first hypothesis of this study. As for gender; females used thanking strategies a bit less than the males and this conclusion rejects the second hypothesis of the study.
Gender Differences in English Language and Science Related Subjects in the Context of Higher Education in Thailand (Published)
This study was conducted at a university in the surrounding areas of Bangkok to cross-compare academic performances between female (n = 406) and male (n = 496) students in both English language skills and GPA scores in science-based subjects. 902 second-year students were selected from four separate faculties to examine the interaction of the gender variable across a broader spectrum of academic backgrounds; faculty subgroups were clustered accordingly: business studies (n = 315), engineering (n = 317), computer science (n = 178) and veterinary medicine (n = 92). T-tests calculations indicated that female students’ level of attainment was significantly higher in both academic spheres: English (females: 56.85, males: 47.87; [sig: p = <0.05]); GPA (females: 70.5, males; 63.75; [sig: p = <0.05]). Furthermore, according to faculty subgroup comparisons, females consistently outperformed their male counterparts in both English language and science related subjects, and also outnumbered their male peers in the top-100 achievers in both domains.
Gender Inequality in the Academia: Precipitate of Antimonies in the Igbo Language and Culture (Published)
In the recent past, language studies stress language and gender issues in relation to sexism – a dynamic field in Sociolinguistics. Sexism as discrimination and prejudice based on sex as a natural phenomenon is a man-made huddle created by men to exhibit power. Even when the language of a speech community is not fully sexist like Igbo language, sexism is stressed in such an environment out of a decision based on status quo bias. Thus, the decision-making model of Baron (2008) on maintaining status quo bias is found a useful anchor for this study. This paper reports a survey on sexism as a phenomenon not fully ingrained in Igbo language, yet, highly exhibited in the culture. To this end, a descriptive survey was employed on the administration of selected universities in five South-eastern Nigeria states. An in-depth interview was administered soliciting views on this practice of inequality in the academia as a model and center for equality. The findings reveal that females are less involved in the higher levels of the university administration as a result of status-quo bias. A significant use of this study is that it lays bare the unnecessary bias against women, and proves that language is not necessarily the cause of sexism, but men. By suggestion it encourages women not to be tendentious against themselves
Influence of Teachers’ Gender and Age on the Integration of Computer Assisted Instruction in Teaching and Learning of Social Studies among Basic Schools in Tamale Metropolis (Published)
This study was conducted in Tamale Metropolis to explore the influence of teachers’ variables (gender and age) on the level of integration of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in the teaching and learning of Social Studies. Three research questions and two hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Quantitative research design was employed for the study. Data for the research was collected from 20 Junior High Schools randomly sampled from Tamale Metropolis using Krejcie & Morgan table for sample size determination. Data was collected by means of structured questionnaires administered to 60 Social Studies teachers from the 20 sampled schools. The questionnaire was designed with a 5-point Likert scale using closed ended questions. The questionnaire was pre-tested in a pilot study to guarantee its reliability using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient formula. It yielded an alpha of .78 which was good and was applied for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Frequencies were used to analyze data on teachers’ perceptions on the integration of CAI, extent of integration and challenges encountered. Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis to determine whether there is a significant difference between male and female teachers and young and old teachers’ implementation of CAI in teaching and learning of Social Studies. The findings discovered most teachers have positive attitude towards the integration of CAI in teaching and learning of Social Studies. Some of the teachers also incorporate CAI into their Social Studies instructions. However, the Social Studies teachers encounter a number of challenges such as limited number of computers, lack of time, lack of technical support, lack of internet among others. It was also discovered that more male teachers use video and radio in their instructions than their females’ counterparts. Old teachers also integrate video and radio in their lessons than the younger ones. However, generally, there was no significant difference between old and young teachers’ application of CAI in Social Studies teaching and learning. Based on the findings, it has been recommended that there should be periodic training of teachers on how to incorporate CAI in their lessons, reform of teacher training curriculum to allow technology integration, and supplying of laptops to teachers and students to enable them effectively incorporate CAI in their lessons to improve students learning outcomes. Government of Ghana in partnership with private sector and NGOs should design and implement intervention to eliminate all barriers to integration of CAI in all schools.
Gender, Class, And Identity in Alice Walker’s The Color Purple and Suzan-Lori Parks’ In the Blood (Published)
The genesis of suffering of Afro-American women has multilayered factors, i.e., race, class, gender, etc. But the struggle of these women is still underrepresented. The present paper looks at the representation of Afro-American women in the fictions of two Afro-American women writers – Alice Walker and Suzan-Lori Parks – to investigate the gender, class, and race dynamics in their works. Their selected works were analyzed from a comparative perspective with a view to highlight the plight of Afro-American women, and to look for possible convergence in the emancipated portrayal of their juxtaposed characters. The thematic stress and characterization of the protagonists in the selected works suggests that oppression of black women can be challenged only if they realize their own strength, in the bonds of sisterhood, for instance, or in the refusal to submission to oppressive conditions. Superficially, the writers have come up with juxtaposed images of black women – Alice Walker’s Celie victimized because of her poverty, race and gender, while Suzan-Lori Parks’ Hester allowing herself to be exploited by men, resorting to filicide in the end. But, at a deeper level both the writers chide black woman for their lack of strength to put a bold face against their oppressors.
Socially division of human being into male or female is gender. Therefore, gender is about men and women. Unfortunately, gender differentiation is very common in a patriarchal set up where one group of people feels superior while the other is deemed inferior, anatomically weak and subordinate. However, the term itself is quite controversial, especially among peace and conflict managers. This paper therefore, examines gender issues and violence, such as sexual harassment, forceful marriage, women genital mutilation, trafficking in women, physical torture, discriminating, etc., against women in Nigeria in general and particularly Akwa Ibom State. The study adopted qualitative research and documentary method of data collection. Its revealed that, their families and friends may be affected in the case of intimate partner violence, there is increasing evidence of the negative impact on children of exposure to violence in the family. Society suffers economically, both in the use of resources and in the loss of productivity due to fear and injury. It recommended among others that government should organize workshops and seminars in both urban and rural areas. Also non-governmental organizations should make wider their sensitization projects to the rural areas through electronic and print media. to ensure that the awareness of violence against women permeates the grassroots, and endeavour to work with Ministry of Social Welfare and Woman Affairs.
Despite widespread democratization in most countries and the struggle by the feminist movements for the integration of gender balancing in the national politics of countries over the world however, women who constitute about 50% of Nigeria population still remain systematically alienated from politics and decision, making process in the country. Poor systems of governance result in widespread discrimination related to sex, race, colour, religion and political opinion. This paper tries to points out the efficacy and the role of gender equality and participation in good governance which has a trickling down effect on development. The study adopted qualitative research and documentary method of data collection. Its revealed a positive correction between gender, good governance and development in Nigeria, hence the need for it and its application. Also, women who constitute about 50% of Nigeria population still remain systematically alienated from politics and decision, making process in the country. It recommended among others that government should engage the support of the mass media and partner with women’s movement NGOs and Civil society for vehement complaint against women subordination, discrimination and stigmatization in the society.
Gender Metamorphoses in the Use of ICT Tools: A Case Study at Offinso College of Education (Published)
The role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education cannot be overemphasized, hence teachers as agents of education are expected to acquire the essential skills to help train the 21st century child to survive in the current competitive and technologically driven world. The study aimed at the impact of ICT on Male and Female student-teachers in Colleges of Education in Ghana. The Mixed research design which takes into consideration the various factors that influence ICT access and usage in Colleges of Education was used. It outlines the various factors that militate against successful integration of ICT tools in teaching and learning. The extent to which student-teachers are embracing technology in their learning have been analysed. The study used questionnaire and participatory observation of classroom activities to collect data from hundred and forty (140) Student-teachers at Offinso College of Education. The findings show no significant difference in access and usage of ICT tools among male and female student-teachers. The study revealed lack of technical support and maintenance as a significant impediment to the development of ICT in the College of education. However, there was no significant difference in access and use of ICT tool since student-teachers share similar backgrounds.
Multiple Roles And Burden of Working Mother in Informal Sector (Case Study: Mother as a Seller the Area of North Sumatera University (Usu), Indonesia (Published)
This research is based on gender issues that are increasingly widespread in so many aspects that it has implications for behavior change in women. One that looks striking is the removal of the limits of space for women who are no longer just taking care of the house and can be free to work outside the home. This condition has an impact on increasing the work force of women in the formal and non formal sectors. But in this study will focus on the informal sector in order to examine the double roles and the double burden of working mother accurately. When compared to working mothers in the formal sector who have better salaries and education then they can pay for Home Assistant services to lighten their dual roles and burdens at home. While mothers working in the non-formal sector with lower salaries and education should feel their own dual roles and burdens. Researchers interested with the phenomenon of working mothers in the University of North Sumatra as a street vendor (PKL) which often involved clashing with officials from Satpol PP and the Department of Transportation. Although there are often clashes caused by the curbing by the related parties, the street vendors keep selling by risking their own security and wares. Not infrequently the mothers of street vendors get unfavorable treatment and have to lose money because of confiscated merchandise. But this does not change the decision of the mothers of street vendors to keep working in the sector. The main factor is the limited skills and also the limitations of the economy. This research uses qualitative approach and descriptive method by conducting interview and direct observation to informant.
Gender Role in Commercial Vegetable Farming (Cvf) In Chitwan District, Nepal (A Case Study of Gunjanagar and Sharadanagar Vdcs) (Published)
A study was conducted to assess the gender role in commercial farming and household income in Chitwan, Nepal in 2012. The survey research design was used whereas purposive and simple random sampling was followed to select the respondents. The study was conducted in Gunjanagar and Sharadanagar Village Development Committees (VDCs) of the Chitwan district. A total of 112 respondents were selected from commercial vegetable growing farmers, 61 respondents from Gunjanagar and 51 respondents from Sharadanagar VDC. A pre-tested and standard interview schedule was employed for household survey to collect primary information. And various documents of the governmental and non-governmental organizations were used for secondary information. The findings of the study revealed that vegetable farming has major contribution in household income. It was explored that joint decision making done in crop selection and marketing activities rather than just one gender. However, technology related and direct money related activities were decided more by male. Most of the activities related to commercial vegetable farming are performed jointly. However, laborious activities like nursery bed preparation, field preparation were done by male and tedious works like manure mixing; intercultural operations were done by female. Various household resources like land, capital, were controlled by male members than female members of the household. Moreover, female farmers have lesser access to agriculture extension services than their male counterparts. The findings also revealed that commercial vegetable farming was not new enterprise for them and most of the farmers were highly motivated by their neighbors, they have started growing vegetable commercially as soon as the highway and feeder roots were made. And the findings also revealed that vegetable production have major share in household income in comparison to other components like livestock, cereal crops and fruits. Almost all farmers were found satisfied with their income and have very positive attitude towards Commercial Vegetable Farming, Due to good income, majority of youths were engaged in this commercial vegetable farming and all farmers are satisfied with this job. Thus, with commercial vegetable farming, gender role has been changing overtime and it has created a good employment opportunities for youths. So, with proper management of the roles of gender, supply of inputs and trainings enhance the commercial vegetable farming in Chitwan district.