Tag Archives: Gender

Examining Birth Order and Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders in Adolescents (Published)

This endeavor was to examine the role of birth order associated with the prevalence of anxiety related emotional disorders in adolescents and to investigate the gender difference for levels of anxiety in adolescents. The sample comprised of 65 individuals aged between twelve to eighteen years. The participants were divided into two groups; both groups consisted of 50 male and 15 females selected conveniently. Among them 28 were first born and 37 were later born. Univariate analysis was conducted via SPSS 20.00. An insignificant relationship between birth order and gender was observed. In terms of each variable, there is significant main effect for birth order and the main effect for gender indicated a statistically insignificant difference in the prevalence of anxiety disorders between the males and females.

Keywords: Adolescence, Anxiety, Birth Order, Gender

Influence of Gender and Location on Students Conceptions of Heat Energy in Senior Secondary School Physics (Published)

The study determined the influence of gender and location on students’ conceptions of heat energy in senior secondary school physics. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. 6,270 senior secondary school two (SSS2) physics students in all the government owned educational secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone of Anambra State, Nigeria; during 2018/2019 academic session comprised the population. The sample size of 357 senior secondary two (SS2) students drawn from the population was used for the study. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used in composing the sample. Heat Energy Conception Test (HECT) with 16 theory items was adapted by the researchers to measure students’ conception of heat energy. The instrument was validated by three experts from the Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The internal consistency index of the instrument was calculated to be 0.747 using Cronbach Alpha formula (α). Frequency and percentage was used to answer all the research questions. Chi-square was used in testing the two null hypotheses of the study. The study revealed that gender and location has no significant influence on students’ conceptions of heat energy in senior secondary school physics. In light of the findings, recommendations were made by the researchers.

Keywords: Energy, Gender, Location, heat, students’ conceptions

Colleague’s Perceptions of Female Managers of National Vocation Trainiing Institutions (NVTIS): A Case Study in the Eastern Region of Ghana (Published)

The study investigated the perception of instructors of National Vocational Training Institutes (NVTIs) about female managers and stereotypical beliefs and perceptions that affect women participation in leadership in NVTIs in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The population of the study comprises the instructors of ST. Mary Vocational Training Institute Asamankese, Abetefi Vocational Training Institute and Anum Presbyterian Vocational Training Institute in 2016/2017 academic year.This research employed quantitative research approach in the data collection and analyses of responses. Data collected from the survey were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequencies and mean scores. The findings of the study revealed that NVTIs’ instructors held the views that female heads do not accept other people views, female heads are less corrupt and are weak in decisions making. They also lack self-confidence in leadership and are not courageous. The study also revealed that stereotypical beliefs and perception affects women participation in leadership roles in NVTIs institutions in the Eastern Region.  Recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.


Keywords: Gender, Leadership, Perception, female head, female manager, stereotypical

Effect of Cognitive Acceleration Training Programme on the Achievement of Upper Basic Two Students in Home Economics (Published)

This study examined the effect of cognitive Acceleration Training Programme on the Achievement of Upper Basic Students in Home Economics. The study adopted quasi- experimental design of non- randomized pre-test post-test control type. The sample consisted of 390 (196 males and 194 females) upper basic two Home Economics students drawn from eight schools, using purposive sampling technique. Cognitive Acceleration Training Programme (CATP) was used for the treatment, while Home Economics Achievement Test (HEAT) was used for pre- and post- test. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that students who were exposed to CATP, in addition to conventional method of teaching, exhibited higher achievement (1,379= 214.961, P=0.00< 0.05). It was also found out that the difference in the achievement score of male and female students exposed to CATP is not significant (1,212= .092, P=762>0.05). It was recommended that Cognitive Acceleration Training Programme be introduced into upper basic curriculum, so as to enhance academic achievement, especially in Home Economics.


Keywords: Achievement, Gender, Home Economics, cognitive acceleration

Fostering Senior Secondary Students’ Attitude and Achievement in Biology in FCT-Abuja Using Facebook Instructional Strategy (Published)

The study investigated how Facebook Instructional Strategy could be used to foster Senior Secondary Students’ Attitude and Achievement in Biology in FCT-Abuja. A quasi-experimental research design was adopted. The population comprised 12719 senior secondary two biology students. The sample consisted of 247 SSII biology students selected from six government schools in the study area using purposive sampling technique. Data were generated using Germination Achievement Test (GAT) and Students’ Attitude to Biology Questionnaire (SABQ). The GAT and SABQ were validated and subjected to reliability analysis using Kuder-Richardson formula 21 (K-R21) and Cronbach Alpha formula which yielded coefficients of 0.75 and 0.68 respectively. Six research questions guided the study, while six hypotheses were formulated. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviations to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that there is significant difference in the mean achievement score of students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy and those taught using the lecture method; there is significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy. There is no significant difference in the mean attitude ratings of students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy and those taught using lecture method; There is no significant difference in the mean attitude ratings of male and female  students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy. Based on the findings, it was recommended amongst others that biology teachers-trainees should be trained on the use of facebook instructional strategy in teaching biology.

Keywords: Achievement, Biology, Facebook instructional strategy, Gender, Seed Germination, attitude

Preliminary Evaluation of Student Approaches to Learning in Moroccan Context (Published)

One of the main factors influencing the quality of learning and therefore the success of students are the Student Approaches to Learning (SALs). They are the why (the motivation) and the how (the strategy) of learning. This transversal study was conducted for the first time in a Moroccan open access university context. Using our validated Arabic version of the revised two-Factor Study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F), the aim of this study was first, examining the overall SALs (Deep Approach, DA and Surface Approach, SA) among a tertiary context in Morocco. Second, assessing and examining the variance of DA and SA scores when related to two personal factors, namely gender and study levels. This study was conducted within the Faculty of Science Dhar El Mahraz (FSDM) belonging to the University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah – (Fez- Morocco) among 300 Moroccan students (138 females) enrolled in different programs across three levels of study (2ed, 4th and 6th Semester). An ANOVA and a t-test were performed. The results showed a significant difference between the two factors. In conclusion, the use of SALS in teaching evaluation is important for the university community to promote the factors influencing deeper learning. Other factors must therefore be explored.

Keywords: Deep Approach, Gender, SAL, Surface Approach, study level.

Language and Gender (Published)

The differences between men and women in using language have been studied long time before. This paper is an attempt to investigate variations in gender language use. In addition, it highlights the definitions of some gender-linguistic terms. On the basis of these differences and changes, the paper also tries to make some explanation to these differences and changes. Issues such as the following have been covered in this paper: Differences in men’s and women’s speech, Women talk more/less than men, Women break the ‘rules’ of turn-taking less than men, Women use more standard forms than men, and Women’s speech is less direct/assertive than men’s. Moreover, it discusses matters such as: the differences from the aspects of pronunciation, intonation, vocabulary, syntax, manners, attitudes, and non-verbal differences in using language between men and women.

Keywords: Gender, assertive, standard forms, turn-taking

Gender in English as a Foreign Language Classroom: A Case Study (Published)

The impact of Gender in EFL classroom has always been an issue of discussion. With the difference of social and cultural background, the role of gender differs from nation to nation. In Bangladesh, gender role is defined based on social, cultural, and traditional beliefs.  This study is an attempt to find out whether genders of learners as well as genders of teachers create barriers in EFL learning in Bangladesh. In the study a number of 198 students responded to the questionnaires prepared for a survey to find out the impact of gender of students and teachers in EFL classroom. Adding to this, 20 students and 9 teachers from a university further illustrated this issue by participating in semi-structured open ended interviews. The findings of this mixed method study reveal that the socio-culturally defined gender role of male and female in the society impacts inside English as a foreign language class in Bangladesh. Self-efficacy of teachers and learners may help address the issue. In this regard, emphasis may be put on teacher self-efficacy to raise awareness among the teachers and learner self-efficacy to help learners to consciously avoid gender discrimination in classroom at the tertiary level.

Keywords: Culture, EFL learning, Gender, Self-Efficacy, Teacher, learner

Student Variables and Choice of Christian Religious Knowledge among senior secondary School Students in cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study assessed student variables and choice of Christian Religious Knowledge among secondary school students in Cross River State. To achieve this purpose, two research questions were put forward and transformed into two null hypotheses. A review of related literature was carried out to examine what has already been documented on the phenomenon under study. The ex-post facto research design was considered most suitable for achieving the purpose of this study. The simple random sampling technique and proportionate sampling technique were used in selecting the sample used for the study. A structured questionnaire titled student variables and choice of Christian religious knowledge questionnaire (SVCCRKQ) was the instrument used for collection of data in the study. The reliability of the research instrument was established through the Cronbach Alpha reliability method. Chi-square statistical tool was used for data analysis. The findings obtained from analysis of data and hypotheses testing revealed that there is a significant influence of gender and interest on students’ choice of Christian Religious Knowledge in the study area. It was concluded that the gender of students cannot be a barrier when it comes to making choice of subject. Based on these findings it was recommended among others that students with low interest in Christian Religious Knowledge should be encouraged to see the subject as an important tool for developing good behaviour and peaceful co-existence.

Keywords: Christian religious knowledge, Gender, Interest, choice of subject

The Role of Women in Agricultural Economy in Ethiopia: The Case of Aira Woreda in Western Wollega Zone, Oromiya Regional State (Published)

Women play active role in almost all aspects of agricultural activities across the world. However, their contribution is underestimated due to the deep rooted gender based division of labour in developing countries. So the study concentrated on the reflection of women’s role in agricultural economy in Aira woreda western wollega zone Oromiya regional state. The objective of this study is to assess the evidence based role of women in development in general and agricultural economy in particular. The study was conducted by using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The relevant data collection tools such as interview, Focus group discussion guideline and questionnaires were used.  Using these method relevant data was gathered and these data were analyzed in descriptive way. It was found that women’s role is more important for economic development in general and agricultural development in particular. These findings also indicate that women play a significant role in almost all aspects of agricultural activities such as crop production, animal husbandry, domestic and other income generating activities. Finally the study has concluded that the role of women is important for economic development in general and effective development of agricultural sector in particular. Based on the findings the researcher recommends that, education is the most important tools to aware the existing social barriers that undermine the role of women in agricultural activities and also multifaceted efforts have to be made to avoid harmful traditional perceptions that hinder the participation of women in agricultural sector.

Keywords: Development, Gender, Women, agriculture activities

Masculinity And Cultural Conflict in Chinu Achebe’s Things Fall Apart – A Study (Published)

The African people have varying behaviors, mannerisms, beliefs, thought patterns and way of interaction and all of these differences formed their culture and impacted their way of life. However, with the coming of the Europeans of Africa came cultural infiltration, pollution as well as alteration. This paper analyses Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart from the angle of masculinity and cultural clash as brought about by Westernization. The method of investigation is analytical and descriptive, using the formalist approach: that is looking at the actions, events, sentences and interactions of the characters in order to identity and discuss how males are portrayed, paying attention to issues of cultural realism, behaviors, actions and statements of the characters. The findings of the paper confirmed that African viewpoint of masculinity and cultural tends to be opposed to that of the Europeans, as the action and behaviors appropriate to a man in each society tend to differ. This led to different clashes from religious, cultural, ideological, to social beliefs. the conclusion that cultural clashes exist in the work and contributed to the final play out of the story, where the traditional belief system had to make way for Western ones; making things fall apart. The paper reveals that the male characters have both cultural and individual masculine idiosyncrasies and that the complexities of male roles confirm the pluralistic and slippery nature of masculinity.  

Keywords: Africa, Discourse, Gender, Hegemony, Sexuality

Gender Difference in the Use of the Know-Want-Learn (KWL) and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students’ Performance in Social Studies (Published)

The study investigated gender differences among Junior Secondary Schools students’ taught Social Studies concepts using Know-Want-Learn (KWL) and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL) strategies in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State. Two research questions and two corresponding hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the quasi-experimental pre-test post-test control group design. The study involved three groups. Two experimental groups (Know-Want-Learn (KWL) differentiation learning strategy and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL) strategy) and a control group taught with traditional learning strategy. The sample consisted of 177 (90 male students and 87 female students) Junior Secondary School II (JSS II) students drawn from three Government Co-educational Secondary Schools. A 25 multiple choice test items, title “Social Studies Achievement Test (SOSAT)” developed by the researchers which covers two topics: Meaning and Consequences of Drug Abuse and Harmful Substances, and Dangers of Drug Trafficking in the Junior Secondary School II Social Studies Curriculum Scheme of Work was the research instrument. The instrument was validated and had reliability coefficient of 0.84 via Kuder-Richardson (KR-21) for a measure of its internal consistency. The relevant data gathered were analyzed with mean, standard deviation, graphical plot associated with Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA). The findings of the study showed that the effect of Know-Want-Learn (KWL) and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL) strategies on the performance of students is not gender dependent. Hence, it was recommended among others that teacher should adopt the teaching strategies in teaching Social Studies in Schools. Also, training workshops should be organized and sustained for Social Studies teachers across the country, exposing them to innovative strategies that encourage active learning and teaching for the 21st century learner and teacher.

Keywords: Gender, Jigsaw Cooperative Learning (JCL), Know-Want-Learn (KWL), Port Harcourt LGA., Social Studies

Validity of Lesson Plan (RPP) Thematic Learning Model Based on Gender and Diversity (Kebhinekaan) (Published)

This study aims to determine the validity of the lesson plan on the thematic learning model based on gender and diversity values for grade IV students in Primary Schools in Aceh Barat District, Aceh. This research embraces research and development with stages 1) preliminary study, 2) design and development stage 3) testing phase. Validity test data obtained from the validation results by experts using a questionnaire instrument. The data obtained were analyzed using a Likert scale. The results obtained from this validity test showed a validity value of 90% with a very valid category.


Keywords: Diversity, Gender, Lesson Plan, validity

Gender Experiences, Teacher Qualification and Students Outcome in English Language among Senior Secondary School Students in Ibadan (Published)

This study examines the relationship between gender experiences and teachers qualification on academic outcome in English language among senior secondary school students in Ibadan. The study adopted descriptive research design while the population is the whole secondary school students in Ibadan. It also adopts Simple random sampling techniques to select one hundred and fifty (150) secondary school students and one hundred and fifty (150) teachers of senior secondary school students totaling three hundred (300) respondents. Questionnaires were the main instruments used for data collection in this study. The questionnaire tagged Gender and Academic Experience Questionnaire (GAEQ) and Teachers Qualification Questionnaire (TQQ). The instrument was validated by the researcher and pilot tested within two weeks which was later yielded r=0.72 and r=0.76 using alpha Cronbach reliability estimation. Based on this research finding, the following recommendations were made that; the individual differences of the learners should be taken care of based on their gender differences as regard their academic pursuit and the teacher of English language should try as much as possible to update themselves by attending seminars and conferences in order to acquire modern skills for their profession/discipline among others.

Keywords: English language and student’s-outcome, Experience, Gender, Students, Teacher, teacher’s qualification

Cultural Expectation as a hindrance to Gender Equality: Ghanaian Girl-Child in Focus (Published)

Boys and Girls in less developed countries like Ghana face different levels of cultural expectations. Cultural expectation from a Ghanaian Girl-Child appears to be a hindrance to Gender equality – equality of intellectual resource. To ascertain the intensity of the effect of subjecting school girls in Ghana into ‘domestic slavery’ as they do the house chores alone at the expense of their time to study, the study looks at the extent to which cultural expectation relating to house chores stands as an impediment to Ghanaian Girl-chid basic education. The study employed both conflict and cognitive theories in explaining how societies make inequality inevitable and manage to categorise some members in the society into groups of subordinates and superiors. In relation to gender and how girls are supressed through their cultural expectations, the theories serve as the theoretical framework for the study. The study adopted a heuristic case study which afforded me the opportunity to dive into the extent to which girls’ education are affected by their cultural responsibility of doing the household chores, leaving the boys untouched. I used observation and interview guide in collecting the data. One of the main findings is that about 52% of the time available for the girl-child to revise her school notes (what is taught in school) goes into such responsibilities whilst her male counterpart gets almost 98% of his time for revision. Another significant point noted is that leaving the house chores into the hands of girls as the boys have freedom to revise their studies makes gender inequality persistence and durable. Thus, gender inequalities associated with intellectual skills will continue to be persistent and durable.

Keywords: Gender, Girl Child, cultural expectation, intellectual resources equality, revising-time loss.

Gender Difference in Fieldtrip and Video Technology Methods of Teaching Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools (Published)

The study investigated gender difference in fieldtrips and video-technology methods in teaching Social studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers state. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The research design adopted for this study was a quasi-experimental design which made use of pre-test, post-test, non-randomized, non-equivalent, control group design. From a population of 6, 240 Social Studies students which are made up of 2, 467 males and 3, 773 females of 13 schools in Port Harcourt LGA, 195 JSS II Social Studies students of three intact classes randomly drawn from three Government co-educational Secondary Schools constituted the sample for the study. The instrument for data collection was an achievement test constructed by the researcher, titled, “Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT)”. The Social studies Achievement Test (SSAT) is a multiple choice objective test consisting of twenty five (25) items with five options (A-E). The test instrument was validated and had a reliability coefficient of 0.87 through Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR20) formula as a measure of the instrument internal consistency. The study was conducted for seven (7) weeks. The second week for obtaining the pre-test score while the 7th week for posttest scores. The main instruction lasted for four (4) weeks. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were the statistical tools used for analyses. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study showed that there is a significant difference in the mean achievement score of male students taught with fieldtrips and those taught with video technology (F (1, 67) = 4.279, p = .042). However, it was found out that there is no significant difference in the mean achievement score of female students taught with fieldtrips and those taught with video technology (F(1, 62) = .391, p = .534). Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that fieldtrips and video technology could be effectively used to teach students irrespective of their gender. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers incorporate these teaching methods in teaching Social Studies especially concepts that require hands-on information.

Keywords: Gender, Instructional strategy, Social Studies, fieldtrip, video technology

Genderlect and Thanking (Published)

Thanking is one of the best ways to maintain harmony between people. As face is so fragile, thanking is of the effective ways to saves face of the interlocutors. This being said, thanking is an indispensable part of language. This study deals, not only with thanking as it is, it studies another topic and that is ‘gender’. Some studies showed that some linguistic items are used in different percentages among speakers when it comes to gender; say, females are more polite to some extent. Iraqi EFL learners are the sample of this study. This type of study, i.e. to know the differences between males and females concerning a specific area in linguistics is new and exciting. The aims of this study are the following:

  1. Finding out the strategies Iraqi EFL learners use concerning the speech act of thanking.
  2. Concluding whether female learners thank more than the males overall.

To fulfill these aims, it is hypothesized that:

  1. Iraqi EFL learners use the direct (or explicit) strategies to thank more than the indirect (or implicit) ones.
  2. Female learners use more thanking strategies than the male ones.

After presenting the literature, the researcher conducts a test to a random sample of Iraqi EFL fourth year students at the Department of English/ College of Education for Human Sciences.

University of Babylon (2016-2017) The results of the test are analysed as well. After applying the test to the sample, he researcher concluded that the students used the direct strategies to thank almost all the time and they even left some of the strategies (especially the indirect one) unused. This emphasized the first hypothesis of this study. As for gender; females used thanking strategies a bit less than the males and this conclusion rejects the second hypothesis of the study.

Keywords: EFL Learners’, Gender, Implicit, Speech Acts., Strategies., explicit, felicity conditions, thanking

Gender Differences in English Language and Science Related Subjects in the Context of Higher Education in Thailand (Published)

This study was conducted at a university in the surrounding areas of Bangkok to cross-compare academic performances between female (n = 406) and male (n = 496) students in both English language skills and GPA scores in science-based subjects. 902 second-year students were selected from four separate faculties to examine the interaction of the gender variable across a broader spectrum of academic backgrounds; faculty subgroups were clustered accordingly: business studies (n = 315), engineering (n = 317), computer science (n = 178) and veterinary medicine (n = 92). T-tests calculations indicated that female students’ level of attainment was significantly higher in both academic spheres: English (females: 56.85, males: 47.87; [sig: p = <0.05]); GPA (females: 70.5, males; 63.75; [sig: p = <0.05]). Furthermore, according to faculty subgroup comparisons, females consistently outperformed their male counterparts in both English language and science related subjects, and also outnumbered their male peers in the top-100 achievers in both domains.

Keywords: English proficiency, Gender, Performance, Science, variability

Gender Inequality in the Academia: Precipitate of Antimonies in the Igbo Language and Culture (Published)

In the recent past, language studies stress language and gender issues in relation to sexism – a dynamic field in Sociolinguistics. Sexism as discrimination and prejudice based on sex as a natural phenomenon is a man-made huddle created by men to exhibit power. Even when the language of a speech community is not fully sexist like Igbo language, sexism is stressed in such an environment out of a decision based on status quo bias. Thus, the decision-making model of Baron (2008) on maintaining status quo bias is found a useful anchor for this study. This paper reports a survey on sexism as a phenomenon not fully ingrained in Igbo language, yet, highly exhibited in the culture. To this end, a descriptive survey was employed on the administration of selected universities in five South-eastern Nigeria states. An in-depth interview was administered soliciting views on this practice of inequality in the academia as a model and center for equality. The findings reveal that females are less involved in the higher levels of the university administration as a result of status-quo bias. A significant use of this study is that it lays bare the unnecessary bias against women, and proves that language is not necessarily the cause of sexism, but men. By suggestion it encourages women not to be tendentious against themselves

Keywords: Gender, Igbo Language, Inequality, academia, status quo bias

Influence of Teachers’ Gender and Age on the Integration of Computer Assisted Instruction in Teaching and Learning of Social Studies among Basic Schools in Tamale Metropolis (Published)

This study was conducted in Tamale Metropolis to explore the influence of teachers’ variables (gender and age) on the level of integration of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in the teaching and learning of Social Studies. Three research questions and two hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Quantitative research design was employed for the study. Data for the research was collected from 20 Junior High Schools randomly sampled from Tamale Metropolis using Krejcie & Morgan table for sample size determination. Data was collected by means of structured questionnaires administered to 60 Social Studies teachers from the 20 sampled schools. The questionnaire was designed with a 5-point Likert scale using closed ended questions. The questionnaire was pre-tested in a pilot study to guarantee its reliability using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient formula. It yielded an alpha of .78 which was good and was applied for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Frequencies were used to analyze data on teachers’ perceptions on the integration of CAI, extent of integration and challenges encountered. Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis to determine whether there is a significant difference between male and female teachers and young and old teachers’ implementation of CAI in teaching and learning of Social Studies. The findings discovered most teachers have positive attitude towards the integration of CAI in teaching and learning of Social Studies. Some of the teachers also incorporate CAI into their Social Studies instructions. However, the Social Studies teachers encounter a number of challenges such as limited number of computers, lack of time, lack of technical support, lack of internet among others. It was also discovered that more male teachers use video and radio in their instructions than their females’ counterparts. Old teachers also integrate video and radio in their lessons than the younger ones. However, generally, there was no significant difference between old and young teachers’ application of CAI in Social Studies teaching and learning. Based on the findings, it has been recommended that there should be periodic training of teachers on how to incorporate CAI in their lessons, reform of teacher training curriculum to allow technology integration, and supplying of laptops to teachers and students to enable them effectively incorporate CAI in their lessons to improve students learning outcomes. Government of Ghana in partnership with private sector and NGOs should design and implement intervention to eliminate all barriers to integration of CAI in all schools.

Keywords: Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Based Learning, Constructivist, Digital Literacy, Gender, Pedagogy, Policy, Social Studies, Teacher Professional Development, and Hypothesis.