Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS) refer to the global initiatives that developed and developing nations have signed up to for the purpose of guaranteeing the best quality of life in 17 broad areas of human needs. SDG 4 is about quality education. SDG 4.7 focuses on education for sustainability, sustainable living/lifestyle, human right education, peace education gender inequality, global citizenship and how they should impact on quality education. These global educational contents are expected to be mainstreamed into the school curriculum at various educational levels. This paper clarifies each component of the SDG 4.7 and explains how best the new subject matters can be integrated into the Nigerian school curriculum as well as implemented in our daily living. Two ways whereby the new curriculum contents can be mainstreamed are either to create new school subjects or, to infuse the new contents into existing subjects in the curricula. This latter option is preferred and so recommended because the curricula of our schools are already too over-loaded to accommodate more subjects. The guidelines for the recommended infusion are made. The place of the teacher in implementing the new curriculum areas is emphasized. Recommendations are made for reorienting teachers towards more effective implementation of the new curricula through pre-service and in-service training. The pedagogical practices that will facilitate the attainment of Goal 4.7 are described, including appropriate teachers preparation, improved methods, resources, and facilitates. Also stressed is the need to accommodate all categories of children- the normal and disabled, boys and girls in the provision of furniture, play facilities and toilet facilities among others.
Attitude of Educated Women in Nasarawa State towards Entrepreneurship Education as Sine Qua Non For Wealth Creation and Reduction of Gender Inequality (Published)
The study investigated the attitude of educated women in Nasarawa State of Nigeria towards entrepreneurship education as an inevitable strategy for wealth creation and reduction of gender inequality. Four research questions and one null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The design of the research was cross-sectional exploratory survey. The estimated population of the study was 200,000 literate women in the state public establishments. A random sample of 400 female public servants was selected for the study. A 36-item structured attitude scale was developed and validated by the researchers and used for data collection, having established its reliability index of 0.84 through Split-half method. Descriptive statistics were used to answer the four formulated research questions while the corresponding null hypotheses were tested using t-test of independent samples at the 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study shows, among other findings, that a high proportion of the educated women expressed positive attitude towards gender equality in wealth creation; there was positive attitude towards acquisition of entrepreneurship skills through vocational courses, and marital status has positive influence on their attitude towards the pursuit of entrepreneurship skills. Concluding that women have positive attitude towards any viable steps for reducing gender inequality, it was recommended that government driven support should focus on encouraging women to embark on acquisition of entrepreneurial skills to facilitate wealth creation and reduce gender inequality.
Behind the underestimation of women from all walks of life in Pakistan, the aim is to avoid the selection process. To be sure, it is useless to appear in the women’s trade unions, where they can endure barbarism. In spite of this, the behavior of the debilitated women from the infringement of their personal rights is common. Although the Constitution of the Pakistan stipulates that all citizens are equal before the law and should not be separated under the premise of gender, there is a comprehensive standard practice of abusing them. These customary structures are obstacles to the equal status of women in Pakistani society.
Women’s participation in politics is a contentious issue in the Nigerian political life. Over the years marginalization has characterized women participation in politics due to various inhibiting social, cultural and religious forces. These forces affected women’s perception of politics leading to a very low level of political interest, knowledge and activities of women in politics. Nigeria politics became male – dominated almost making the women virtually politically invisible. However, various moves to inculcate skills and knowledge that will liberate women from abject poverty (socially, economically and politically) are on. These will go a long way to increase and improve women participation in politics in Nigeria. Women are believed to have an exciting political prospect in Nigeria. The issue of inequality has therefore been perceived by different people especially the women folk as an attempt to erode their fundamental rights. In short, Women Participation in Nigerian politics is a topic of importance. Politically, women have been relegated to the background, despite the tremendous effort put forward by government and non-governmental organizations following the declaration made at the fourth World Conference on women in Beijing, which advocated 30% affirmative action and National Gender Policy (NGP) recommendation of 35% affirmative action for a more inclusive representation of women both in elective and appointive positions. It is worthy to note as revealed by this paper, that Nigerian women are still being marginalized due to the style of leadership inherent in the country. Despite the challenges women are facing, it was discovered that women activism and advocacy, education of women, positivity on the part of successive governments towards women empowerment and interest of women to participate in politics is getting a lot of positive energy. It is therefore, an indication that the participation of women in politics has a bright future. But, this is not without that, relevant stakeholders are advised to advocate for the protection of women from abuse, empower them economically and politically and review the necessary legislations to accommodate the growing interest of women in politics both elective and appointive positions.
A Comparative Study of the Role of Men and Women in Cooperative Development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)
The actualization of Cooperatives development is one of the most common traits of the emerging economies. Government at all levels in different occasions has adopted one developmental strategy or the other, all aimed to successfully install cooperative development. This study had the objective of assessing the role of men and women in cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State in Nigeria. The study employed primary sources of data. The primary data were collected through questionnaires using descriptive statistics. The results of the study indicated that the male cooperators contribute more to cooperative development than their female counterparts. The study concludes that cooperative societies in Udi should be properly and effectively managed. It was also recommended that cooperative societies should endeavour to improve their management skills, balance gender inequality and enhance the personal welfare of members so as to facilitate cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area.
Social Welfare Analysis of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment in Urban and Rural Nigeria (Published)
This study analyzes the social welfare effect of gender inequality in human capital development (education and employment) across rural and urban Nigeria. Using Nigeria most recent data set on labour force survey by NBS, which captures labour force participation by gender, gender unemployment by educational level and sector, gender schooling ratio, gender population growth rate and economic active participation by gender this study investigated how differently, gender inequality in education and employment affects women across rural and urban regions. To unravel this, we adopted Shorrock and Alkinson Generalized Lorenz approach to welfare dominance and inequality decomposition. We ranked gender inequality on education and employment by rural and urban. The study found that female unemployment by educational level is predominant in the urban sectors compared to the rural sectors. Also gender inequality is higher in labour force participation when compared with education in Nigeria.
Unemployment Rate, Gender Inequality and Economic Growth in Nigeria “A Short-Run Impact Analysis” (Published)
This paper examines the short-run impact of gender inequality (proxy by primary and secondary school enrollment) and economic growth (real gross domestic product) on unemployment rate in Nigeria, and also the study determines how much of the forecast error variance of unemployment can be explained by exogenous shocks from variables (gender inequality, economic growth, and population growth rate). Thus, the study using Engel Granger Error Correction Model and Dynamic Stochastic Variance Decomposition Model on a time series data collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The error correction results in both model 1 and model 2 are robust and consistent with their signs; the impact of gender inequality is positive in both short run models, but significant only in model 1 before the control variables were introduced. Again, the variance decomposition result indicates that gender Inequality emits the highest impulse on the rate of unemployment at 34.735% on average of the ten periods. While economic growth has a negative impact on the rate of unemployment for the two models and exerted only 8.438% impulse on average. The variance decomposition results also showed that unemployment rate transmitted on average of 78.453% impulse on itself for the 10periods under review. Exchange rate, inflation rate, and gross capital formation emitted 28.68%, 10.78%, and 6.81% respectively on average on unemployment rate. Finally, population growth rate transmitted 5.59% impulse on unemployment. There is a long run relationship between the variables and the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium is 52%. Thus, we conclude that gender inequality is a strong factor of unemployment and policy makers and government should embark on developing laws that will reduce/eradicate gender disparity in Nigeria.