Women Entrepreneurship and Gender Equality as a Tool for Social Transformation in Nigeria: Evidence from Selected Rice Farmers in Anambra East Local Government (Published)
Women are viewed as the foundation of development of country and national economies as well as agents of social change. Nonetheless, traditions, beliefs and cultural norms limit women’s capacity to acquire land and add to increase gender gaps in the quality and size of owned farmland. This kind of challenge made rural women to form different associations and groups, for instance, Rice Farmers Association, The Village Savings and Loan Associations and Daily Contribution association etc to empower themselves. This research examined the “Omambala” Women’s Rice Farmers Association in South East area of Nigeria and how the women group has achieved social change around there. Majority of the members (over 94%) are smallholder farmers. These women make consistent membership contributions, a social fund contributions and records are kept and the monies kept in a saving funds box, which is opened at a concurred time. Individuals members get their monies as per the sum contributed and the social fund contributions is used to purchase farm implements and inputs for members, build social amenities, reconstruct health care centers, re-construct dilapidated school blocks, offers grants to poverty stricken children and so forth. This paper examines the viability of this women rice farmers association as an instrument for gender balance and social transformation in Anambra State Nigeria. This research was done in villages at Anambra East local government where majority of the women are farmers and makes farming their major means of livelihood. 160 members and administrators of the group were interviewed using key informant interview and Focus Group Discussions. Data generated was analysed using simple percentage and frequency tables. Findings from the research shows that women farmers contributes a great deal to social change and economic development; traditions, beliefs and cultural norms influences the performance level of these women and climate change is an obstruction to their growth. The investigation in this manner prescribes that, to increase gender gaps, women ought to be permitted to possess farmlands; cultural norms that limits women from taking part completely in agriculture ought to be abrogated. Moreover, sufficient measures should to be taken by people and government to forestall flooding during raining season.
The question of woman is one of the major areas of debate in most contemporary societies in Nigeria in particular and throughout the world in general. Social scientists, feminists and anthologists have tried to identify the essence of “woman” and how she differs from man if indeed, such difference exists. As a result, a variety of opinions regarding the “woman” and what determined her role in the society emerged. Furthermore the question of what is intrinsically Islamic with respect to ideas about woman and gender remains complicated by several clichés which have been confused with Islam, this has led to the belief that Islamic law is anti feminism in some or all of its forms. On the other hand, feminists’ discourses address basic issues of inequality in Islamic law and practice with the aim of attaining more equally balanced marital relationships, basic human rights and personal, civil and political rights. This paper attempts to examine a number of feminists’ issues on the above mentioned areas. It also shed light on the treatment of women by the Islamic legal system and in modern Muslim legal interpretations. Here a return to history is required looking at religious texts and high documents in a more critical and objective manner. The study finds out that Muslim women are subjugated to various forms of denials of rights because Islam has been abandoned in practice and misrepresented by some scholars. The study recommends that Muslim scholars both male and female should play the vital role of massive enlightenment campaigns to educate the people on the Shari’ah (Islamic law), its positive attitude towards gender equality and the right of all human beings.
The purpose of this paper is to present the current situation in Albania, regarding women’s representation in public administration, in front of European integration challenge. Women’s representation in public administration is analyzed in this paper, with special focus at senior management position as well as in decision-making bodies, compared with the standards of gender quota in Albania and European Union countries. This analysis is based on secondary data; reports or other studies which are processed and analyzed through the statistical comparison. The methodology used is the descriptive and comparative one. There are different findings regarding the different levels of public administration. Women’s representation at low and middle level of public administration, marks significant achievements, exceeded national and European gender quota standards, while at senior management level and decision making bodies it is still in critical level.
The aim of this study is to analyze and realize the application of energy extension to hold sustainable green economy of the country. Energy extensions improve access of energy to the most of the rural areas, reduce emissions of local and global pollutants, and create local socioeconomic development opportunities. Those concerns have rekindled interest in energy efficiency, energy conservation, and the development and commercialization of renewable energy technologies. The study recommends that more energy extension should be carried out to enhance energy management, performance improvement and also, environmental protection to ensure human healthy and gender equality. And Policies should focus on promoting energy extension, especially in the residential and commercial sectors to drive green economic growth.
GENDER AND PROMOTIONS IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION, WINNEBA, GHANA (Published)
This study focuses on the experiences of faculty members about the systems of promotions at the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Eight (8) senior members were interviewed comprising of four (4) female senior lecturers, two (2) male senior lecturers and two (2) senior administrative staff using a semi structured interview guide. Policy documents governing promotions, annual reports and other institutional publications were examined and analyzed as well as disaggregated statistics on promotions for senior members at the University of Education, Winneba. The findings reveal that even though there are no separate criteria for promotions for female senior members of the University, it seems that female faculty faces unparallel challenges more than the males when it comes to promotions, which the respondents attributed to existence of institutional policies/practices that works to disadvantage women. In effect there are variations in the experiences of female and male faculty members regarding promotions in academia.The study recommended that the criteria for promotion should be reviewed to give serious considerations to the weighting of teaching, vis-à-vis research, in promotion, merit increment, and tenure decisions.