Phytoconstituents and Antidiabetic Activity of Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) in Steptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats (Published)
Vernonia amygdalina (VAM) is a medicinal plant that has been use traditionally in the management of diseases especially diabetes. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis were carried out while 25 male albino wistar rats (137-223 g) were used to evaluate the andiabetic activity. The animals were randomly divided into five groups (n=5). Group I (control) received normal feed and water, while Groups II, III, IV and V were diabetes induced with single dose of 45 mg/kg b.wt streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally. After three days, group III was treated with metformin (MET) whereas, groups IV and V were treated with 150 and 300 mg/kg b.wt VAM respectively for another seven days. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of most common phytochemicals except anthraquinone and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 10 phytoconstituents majorly fatty acids and esters, and phytol. The FBG levels of diabetic-induced rats treated with doses of VAM and MET were significantly reduced (p<0.05). There was observed significant (p<0.05) decrease in the levels of plasma aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and non-significant (p>0.05) decrease in alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in diabetic induced rats compared to control. MET treatment reversed the order in GGT and LDH while VAM doses could only reverse the order in LDH. At high dose, VAM significantly (p<0.05) increased the concentration of plasma total protein (TTP), creatinine (CRE), bilirubin (BIL) whereas, at low dose, VAM significantly (p<0.05) increased the concentration of plasma triglyceride (TRIG) and cholesterol (CHOL) compared to the STZ and control groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that VAM leaf extract possess some phytoconstituents which could be responsible for its antidiabetic activity.
Phthalate Ester Plasticizers in Orogodo River Delta State and Their Potential Health Effects (Published)
This study was carried out to analyse the presence of different phthalates such as dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalates (DEP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), buttylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) in Orogodo River. Samples were collected from eight points along the river channel, extracted using liquid-liquid method of extraction and was analysed using GC/MS. Levels of phthalates in water samples from the river ranged from 0.00µg/L to 2.22µg/L. The highest concentrations of phthalates were DBP and DEHP, which is consistent with their common use in plastic materials and other industrial chemicals. It was found that the individual phthalates concentration was low but total phthalate levels were high in most stations. Total phthalates for each of the location ranges from 1.34µg/L to 3.29µg/L at each station. Some of these were higher than the criterion of 3µg/L phthalates recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the protection of fish and other aquatic organisms. The high concentrations may be as a result of dumping of untreated effluent/solid waste and emissions arising from burning of refuse containing plastic materials along the stretch of the river. The results for phthalates in the water samples give cause for environmental and health concern for people living downstream of the river. These results can be used as reference levels for future monitoring programs for pollution studies of the river.
ESSENTIAL OIL EUGENIA ASTRINGENS CAMBESS. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT ANTIMICROBIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC. (Published)
The essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia astringens Cambess (OE-2) was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus modified. The essential oil chemical composition (0.17% yield) was analyzed in GC-MS. The main component in the leaves was the α – pinene. The result of the quantification of the OE-2 sample, the calibration curve showed that the percentage of α-pinene in the essential oil is 2.5% ± 3.9. Cytotoxic potential of the essential oil of Eugenia astringens Cambess was assessed by indirect diffusion in agarose gel in a strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil obtained in vitro antibacterial activity relevant for high dosage (25 µL). It has been found that the use of essential oil (12.5mL) along with the antibiotic (amoxicillin, 12,5 µL volume) did not potentiate the drug action, this remains invariable. The linearity of the calibration curve was proven in the evaluated concentration range, but through the linear model obtained by Ordinary Least Squares Method.