Phthalate Ester Plasticizers in Orogodo River Delta State and Their Potential Health Effects (Published)
This study was carried out to analyse the presence of different phthalates such as dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalates (DEP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), buttylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) in Orogodo River. Samples were collected from eight points along the river channel, extracted using liquid-liquid method of extraction and was analysed using GC/MS. Levels of phthalates in water samples from the river ranged from 0.00µg/L to 2.22µg/L. The highest concentrations of phthalates were DBP and DEHP, which is consistent with their common use in plastic materials and other industrial chemicals. It was found that the individual phthalates concentration was low but total phthalate levels were high in most stations. Total phthalates for each of the location ranges from 1.34µg/L to 3.29µg/L at each station. Some of these were higher than the criterion of 3µg/L phthalates recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the protection of fish and other aquatic organisms. The high concentrations may be as a result of dumping of untreated effluent/solid waste and emissions arising from burning of refuse containing plastic materials along the stretch of the river. The results for phthalates in the water samples give cause for environmental and health concern for people living downstream of the river. These results can be used as reference levels for future monitoring programs for pollution studies of the river.
ESSENTIAL OIL EUGENIA ASTRINGENS CAMBESS. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT ANTIMICROBIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC. (Published)
The essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia astringens Cambess (OE-2) was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus modified. The essential oil chemical composition (0.17% yield) was analyzed in GC-MS. The main component in the leaves was the α – pinene. The result of the quantification of the OE-2 sample, the calibration curve showed that the percentage of α-pinene in the essential oil is 2.5% ± 3.9. Cytotoxic potential of the essential oil of Eugenia astringens Cambess was assessed by indirect diffusion in agarose gel in a strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil obtained in vitro antibacterial activity relevant for high dosage (25 µL). It has been found that the use of essential oil (12.5mL) along with the antibiotic (amoxicillin, 12,5 µL volume) did not potentiate the drug action, this remains invariable. The linearity of the calibration curve was proven in the evaluated concentration range, but through the linear model obtained by Ordinary Least Squares Method.