Games in EFL Kindergartens: Jordan as an Example (Published)
To prevent approaching a dull language teaching and learning experience, games utilization in EFL kindergartens embodies a promising innovative tool for EFL teachers and learners to utilize in educational EFL institutions, especially kindergartens. This study aims to find out the extent to which Jordanian EFL kindergarten teachers utilize games in teaching English. Therefore, a self-made checklist was implemented while observing a convenient sample of 15 EFL kindergarten teachers practice in classroom in different kindergartens. 45 classes were observed to fill in the eleven-item checklist representing purposes of games utilization in EFL classes in kindergartens. Purposes include three items in teaching grammar. These are explaining simple structure, helping students to recognize grammatical items, and helping students produce correct forms. Purposes to teach vocabulary include delivering content, helping students recognize different vocabulary and helping students to read English words correctly. Purposes to do warm up activities include using games to make the topic more appealing, to introduce the main topic and to increase their aptitude to learn new material. Finally, purposes to utilize games as a formative assessment tool. These include helping teachers to assess their students and helping students to their tasks smoothly. The manual analysis of the findings showed, first, an absence of games utilization in EFL kindergartens. A second finding is a lack of cognition and awareness of the definition of games per se among EFL teachers. A third finding is teachers’ erroneous perception of games utilization that may lead to a delusional sense of professional development. A fourth finding is that English teachers, generally, tend to utilize games in kindergartens for the purpose of assessing their students’ performance. A fifth finding is a lack of training in kindergarten instruction among English teachers- who are majored in English- in EFL kindergarten, hence, a lack of accountability. The study suggests an urgent need for preparing EFL kindergarten teachers as well as increasing their readiness for such critical age- sensitive profession. The findings of the present study can be of use to pre-school educationalists, kindergartens administrators and English teachers.
This study aimed at assessing the role of games and drama in improving English language teaching in primary schools in Khartoum state. The population of the study is composed of primary school teachers in Khartoum state. Only one tool was employed for collecting data from the teachers’ questionnaire. The results of the study revealed that although basic level teachers of English language are highly convinced of the necessity of using games and drama in teaching English at basic level, they do not agree that they are actually used. Also, there are many difficulties that face teachers in using games and drama activities in teaching English. Teachers believe that there are a number of reasons why games and drama activities are effective techniques in teaching English. This study ends up with a set of recommendations 1) games and drama activities have to have their due weight in classroom practice. They have to be used more frequently 2) Textbooks should incorporate as many activities of games and drama as possible and they have to be given their time in the language course. They should not be just as toppings for lessons; rather they have to be integrated in the teaching process as essential components 3) Teachers should be trained on how to avoid the pitfalls of games and drama activities and they should be trained on how to maximize their benefits 4) School administrations should be made aware of the importance of games and drama activities and they should provide more opportunities for the teachers to use them 5) Pupils have to be trained on how to carry out these activities and they should be coached on how to use the time allotted for them in the proper manner 6) Special care has to be given to pupils who are by their nature withdrawn 7) Class tests and continuous assessment has to include games and drama activities 8) Parents should be educated on the value of games and drama activities as effective techniques for learning English. Games and drama should be a constant feature in the Parents Day. It is suggested that 1) the ability of games and drama activities to develop listening and speaking skills 2) the potentiality of games and drama to develop cultural awareness 3) the intrinsic value of games and drama to develop the 4 Cs of the 21st century skills (Communication, Creativity, Critical thinking, Collaboration 4) the potentiality of games and drama activities to match the characteristics of the new generations (Alpha Gen in particular).