Tag Archives: Functional

Effect of Processing On the Proximate and Functional Properties of “Akparata” (Afzelia Africana) Flour (Published)

The Mahogany bean also known as “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) seeds were divided into three portions. The first sample coded with R10, R20 and R30 was processed by roasting at  1000C  (for 10, 20 and 30 minutes) respectively and second sample of the seeds coded C40, C50 and C60 were cooked at 1000C (for 40, 50 and 60 minutes) respectively while the raw unprocessed (third sample) served as the control. The proximate compositions showed significant difference at (P< 0.05)   in some nutrients evaluated. In terms of moisture content, all the cooked samples (C 40, C50 and C60) were higher (28 – 33.5%) than the Control (10.5%) and roasted (4.5 – 6.5%) samples. Also the ash content for the roasted and cooked samples were significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than the control sample (4.0%). The protein content of the raw sample (38.4%) was significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than all the samples treated by roasting and cooking. In terms of fat content, all the roasted samples had higher values (28.0 – 35.5%) than the raw (9.5%) and cooked (7.0- 8.0%) samples which were significantly different at (P< 0.05). The functional properties of the “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) flour with respect to bulk density showed that the roasted samples were higher (0.62 – 0.68g/ml) than the cooked (0.47 -0.54g/ml) and raw (0.60g/ml). In water absorption capacity, all the values obtained in roasted and cooked samples were higher than the control (2.83%). This trend is also similar to oil absorption capacity. With respect to the foaming capacity, the control sample had higher value of (5.66%) when compared to the roasted (0.91 -3.23%) and cooked (1.12 -1.14%) samples. For the viscosity, the raw sample gave the highest value (16cp) when compared to roasted (6 – 10cp) and cooked (5 – 8cp) samples.

Keywords: Akparata seeds, Functional, cooking, roasting

Effect of Processing on the Proximate and Functional Properties of “Akparata” (Afzelia Africana) Flour (Published)

The Mahogany bean also known as “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) seeds were divided into three portions. The first sample coded with R10, R20 and R30 was processed by roasting at  1000C  (for 10, 20 and 30 minutes) respectively and second sample of the seeds coded C40, C50 and C60 were cooked at 1000C (for 40, 50 and 60 minutes) respectively while the raw unprocessed (third sample) served as the control. The proximate compositions showed significant difference at (P< 0.05)   in some nutrients evaluated. In terms of moisture content, all the cooked samples (C 40, C50 and C60) were higher (28 – 33.5%) than the Control (10.5%) and roasted (4.5 – 6.5%) samples. Also the ash content for the roasted and cooked samples were significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than the control sample (4.0%). The protein content of the raw sample (38.4%) was significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than all the samples treated by roasting and cooking. In terms of fat content, all the roasted samples had higher values (28.0 – 35.5%) than the raw (9.5%) and cooked (7.0- 8.0%) samples which were significantly different at (P< 0.05). The functional properties of the “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) flour with respect to bulk density showed that the roasted samples were higher (0.62 – 0.68g/ml) than the cooked (0.47 -0.54g/ml) and raw (0.60g/ml). In water absorption capacity, all the values obtained in roasted and cooked samples were higher than the control (2.83%). This trend is also similar to oil absorption capacity. With respect to the foaming capacity, the control sample had higher value of (5.66%) when compared to the roasted (0.91 -3.23%) and cooked (1.12 -1.14%) samples. For the viscosity, the raw sample gave the highest value (16cp) when compared to roasted (6 – 10cp) and cooked (5 – 8cp) samples.

Keywords: Akparata seeds, Functional, cooking, roasting

EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE PROXIMATE AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF “AKPARATA” (AFZELIA AFRICANA) FLOUR (Published)

The Mahogany bean also known as “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) seeds were divided into three portions. The first sample coded with R10, R20 and R30 was processed by roasting at 1000C (for 10, 20 and 30 minutes) respectively and second sample of the seeds coded C40, C50 and C60 were cooked at 1000C (for 40, 50 and 60 minutes) respectively while the raw unprocessed (third sample) served as the control. The proximate compositions showed significant difference at (P< 0.05) in some nutrients evaluated. In terms of moisture content, all the cooked samples (C 40, C50 and C60) were higher (28 – 33.5%) than the Control (10.5%) and roasted (4.5 – 6.5%) samples. Also the ash content for the roasted and cooked samples were significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than the control sample (4.0%). The protein content of the raw sample (38.4%) was significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than all the samples treated by roasting and cooking. In terms of fat content, all the roasted samples had higher values (28.0 – 35.5%) than the raw (9.5%) and cooked (7.0- 8.0%) samples which were significantly different at (P< 0.05). The functional properties of the “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) flour with respect to bulk density showed that the roasted samples were higher (0.62 – 0.68g/ml) than the cooked (0.47 -0.54g/ml) and raw (0.60g/ml) samples . In water absorption capacity, all the values obtained in roasted and cooked samples were higher than the control (2.83%). This trend is also similar to oil absorption capacity. With respect to the foaming capacity, the control sample had higher value of (5.66%) when compared to the roasted (0.91 -3.23%) and cooked (1.12 -1.14%) samples. For the viscosity, the raw sample gave the highest value (16cp) when compared to roasted (6 – 10cp) and cooked (5 – 8cp) samples

Keywords: Akparata seeds, Flour, Functional, cooking, roasting

Functional Vocational and Technical Education Curriculum for Sustainable Youth Empowerment in Nigeria (Published)

This paper was designed to look at vocational and technical education curriculum. Vocational and technical education is a programme designed for sustainable youth empowerment in Nigeria. Vocational and technical education cannot be overemphasized for development and growth of the economy. The paper treated the topic under the following sub- headings: Technical and Vocational Education in Nigeria, Functional Vocational and Technical Curriculum Implementation, Factors Militating against Implementation of Functional Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria, and Promoting Vocational and Technical Education Curriculum for Sustainable Youth Empowerment in Nigeria. The paper was concluded and recommendations were made to further improve on the vocational and technical education programme. Some of the recommendations are : Government should delegate inspectors from ministry of education or set-up an implementation committee that will advise government on better ways of monitoring, controlling and implementing the affairs of vocational and technical education programme

Keywords: Curriculum, Education, Empowerment, Functional, Sustainable, Technical. Vocational and Youth

Assessment of Functional and Environmental Indicators in the Performance of Buildings in Federal Universities of South East Nigeria (Published)

The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the extent to which functional and environmental measures/indicators are expressed in the performance of Educational buildings in Universities of South East Nigeria and recommend measures for improved understanding and practice. Literature review was used to provide a clear understanding of the constructs of functionality and environmental performance in buildings. A questionnaire relating to the diverse contents of these constructs was developed and administered to a convenient sample of staff and students of some Federal universities under investigation. Data generated from the questionnaire were analysed using Excel and statistica; Version 9.0. The study suggests that majority of the respondents (staff and students) were generally dissatisfied with the functional and environmental performance of their building facilities. Information about the design and use of specific buildings were imprecise and therefore not usually identified in the institutions studied. The functionality and environmental concerns of most of the building spaces such as classrooms, offices and residential accommodations were found to be poor. Hence, the interaction between users and building spaces did not add value to learning and working experiences. The findings point to the conclusion that functional efficiency and environmental performance goals seem not have been explicitly expressed in the design of most buildings investigated. The study points to the need for designers and facilities managers in these institutions to acquire skills on critical aspects of building performance evaluation, particularly, the recognition of environmental and functional concerns/indicators as means of meeting the increasing demand for higher quality by stakeholders in the education sector.

Keywords: Assessment, Buildings, Environmental, Functional, Nigeria, Performance, Universities