Tag Archives: Freedom

Yearning for Freedom in a Prison without Bars in Two Novels: Ṣamt al-Farāshāt/ Silence of the Butterflies by Laylā al-ʿUthmān and Lam ʾAʿud ʾAbkī / I Do not Cry Anymore by Zaynab Ḥifnī (Published)

The crisis of freedom that the Gulf woman lives in under a patriarchal male culture that is biased against her and against the Arab woman in general, turns her into a prisoner who lives behind moral bars. Under these circumstances, the Gulf woman’s writing becomes a conflict with the man’s concepts and the patriarchal male mentality of her society. However, by writing, she reveals the issues of her scandalous oppression, and emancipates herself from her shackles. Writing is one of the forms of freedom, through which she regains her voice that has been stolen from her as a woman and a creative artist. This study seeks to reveal the manifestations of oppression that the woman is exposed to in the feminist Gulf literature in two novels: Ṣamt al-Farāshāt by  Laylā al-ʿUthmān, and Lam ʾAʿud ʾAbkī  by Zaynab Ḥifnī as samples. The study will reveal the woman’s figurative ‘prison’ and ‘jailor’: the prison of society with its norms and traditions, and the prison of the Man and his domination as images of her oppression by marriage, and by the siege of social norms, the culture of silence,  her prevention from choosing her job and her creative freedom. In return, the study will observe the features of her revolution and rebellion against all these figurative “prisons” such as her refusal of the traditional marriage, her resistance by writing, her search for love, and breakage of the sex taboo. The woman manifests herself between the character of the ‘prisoner’ and the ‘rebellious’ woman, between her ‘yearning for freedom’ and her ‘revolt’ against the ‘bars’ in order to realize herself and break the taboos.

Keywords: Females, Freedom, Prison, Society, Traditions, bars, males

Rudolf Steiner’s Philosophy of Freedom as A Panacea to the Nigerian Social and Political Settings: An Analytic Approach (Published)

The question of human freedom is a perennial one that has occupied the philosophical enterprise. Many questions have been asked: can humans think freely? Can they act freely? Are there circumstances that limit human beings? Can one control his/her thoughts and actions? Many philosophers have engaged these questions from varieties of perspectives through different approaches and methods. This work, “An Appraisal of Rudolf Steiner’s Concept of Freedom,” provides the pivot for our philosophical inquiry. It seeks to interpret the epistemological and ethical significances of freedom.  Freedom is not only theoretical but it is also practical. To thoroughly tackle the question of freedom, it is also important to incorporate the views of some other philosophers in this area of specialization. This work finds that human beings can achieve freedom through pure individualized thinking by transcending the compulsive impulses of nature and culture. It makes use of hermeneutical and analytical methods, to interpret and analyse critically the philosophical positions of Steiner, its significance, potentials and shortcomings.

Keywords: Freedom, Knowledge, Political, Social, thinking

Spirit is the core of the American Dream: An Analysis of Santiago’s struggle in The Old Man and the Sea (Published)

This article is a careful study of ‘spirit’, tireless effort for success, as the cardinal linchpin to lay foundation of the American Dream of a man irrespective of his social class, race, age or religion to lead a life in freedom and to change the life to a particular extent by virtue of which an individual can gain a befitting social recognition and feel ensconced thereby. It also focuses on the struggle through which an individual has to fulfill the American Dream. It shows how the protagonist of The Old Man and the Sea, Santiago, an old American makes indefatigable effort to become successful in securing a place in a competitive society where it is difficult to survive fighting enormous adversity. This paper uses qualitative research strategy counting upon text based analysis to find out the unexplored aspect of the American Dream. Moreover, to facilitate its argument, this paper takes help from published research articles as secondary source. In fact, it challenges the traditional perception that success is the crux of the American Dream, and presents the fact that spirit for amelioration is the core of the American Dream.

Keywords: American dream, Core, Freedom, adversity, amelioration, competitive society, functioning catalyst, spirit

Terribly Victimised Gender of Kashmir Conflict: A Women-Centric Perspective of Nayeema Mahjoor’s lost In Terror (Published)

Jammu and Kashmir has been a bone of contention between India and Pakistan since the partition of the subcontinent in 1947. This picturesque valley, which has since been under the domain of India, has seen many uprisings. The movement for freedom ‘Azadi’ has left a deep imprint upon the minds of the inhabitants, but mostly it is the women of Kashmir who have been the worst hit victims. There have been many books depicting the Kashmir issue from a man’s perspective but hardly any from the women’s point of view depicting their suffering and misery. Logically only a woman can better express the traumas of women. Fortunately this need was fulfilled by Nayeema  Mahjoor  in the form of her novel Lost in Terror, perhaps the first novel, which shows the another side of the conflict ‘women side’ by realistically narrating the sufferings  which a Kashmiri woman goes through. The present paper attempts to make an assessment of the miseries and problems Kashmiri conflict –torn women have to face.  It will also deliberate on how Nayeema has become the representative voice of the women community, most importantly so because she herself has been a victim like thousands of others, which strongly authenticates her narration as first hand and valid.

Keywords: Conflict, Freedom, Jammu, Kashmir, Misery, Victims, Women

Comparative Overview of Civil Partnership (Published)

Italian legislation has been used many times as an example in drafting the legislation of the Republic of Albania. Since this country has recently adopted the law on regulating civil partnership we are referring to dealing with this institution. Two people with the same gender and seniority create civil partnerships through the declaration before the Civil Registrar Officer and in the presence of two witnesses. Civil Registrar Officer then registers the civil partnership act in the civil registry. Civil partnership can be opposed by the party whose consent is taken by violence or driven by a great external fear set by itself. Also another reason why it can be opposed is also the case in which the consent was given in terms of error on the identity of the person or error over certain qualities of the other party. All people, regardless of sex, sexual orientation or gender identity, have the right to enjoy the protection afforded by human rights legislation, including respect for the right to life, security of the person and his or her privacy, protection against torture, from arbitrary arrest and detention, from discrimination, as well as the right to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly. The common living of a gay couple, coupled with a stability in their relationships, is included in the concept of family life.

Keywords: Civil Partnership, Freedom, Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation

The Man’s Freedom and free will from the Point Of View of Muslim Philosophers (Published)

Freedom is of the fundamental issues related to the human and its social life, which is discussed under different titles. Man is characterized with an independent, wise and free character; the desire and feeling for freedom are inherent; in the road of life, the man is dominated by nothing preventing fulfillment of his will since God created him wise and free. The man’s voluntary evolution indicating its character and talent flourishing represents its freedom. According to Muslim philosophers’ view, the man’s freedom is essential for happiness; this necessity stems from Fitra and is the result of speech and other habits; as he is responsible for its own prosperity or adversity. Freedom, indeed, is the possibility and ability of utilizing and the will’s objective interpretation along being. It is implicitly defined as getting free from bondage and others’ dominance. Social freedom also comes from the authority view in which the man tries to fulfill his will in the society in order to remove existing constraints. Thus, in Islamic view, freedom is realized in three steps of internal freedom (intellectual and mental), external freedom (freedom in will’s objective realization) and social freedom (lack of acquiesce before social idols). Freedom in this interpretation is the divine evolution and forgery, which is non-assignable, nontransferrable and non-granted; further, it is considered as the basic fundamental of personality formation and development of the individual and society.  

Keywords: Free Will (Authority), Freedom, Positive Freedom, Prosperity, Reason (Speech), Value, Will, evolution

Revolutionizing the Body: Eros and Demos in Post-Arab Spring Women Writings (Published)

The successful political revolutionary transformations fulfilled by the Arab Spring of 2010-11, acted as a catalyst for synchronous cultural, social and sexual changes. The ‘double revolution’ heralded the emergence of the new woman, transitioning from the docile and conservative, into a concupiscent hermaphroditic rebel, who dares to demand her sexual rights and freedom, challenge the existing norms and disclose her sexual trauma, pleasures, and desires. The body is ‘revolutionized’ and instrumentalized to resist marginalization and to propound bodily and sexual rights. There is an attempt to establish a relation between the historical events and their literary portrayal. The gender perspective of the Arab Spring is analyzed through examples of Arab women artists, whose works in literature, graffiti, blogs or social media, reflect the changes in the ‘Spring’ woman’s character, thought, and conceptualization of sex. Their opus epitomizes the new feminine subjectivities created through the intersection of gender, class, and nation.

Keywords: Arab Spring, Body, Freedom, Gender, Revolutions, Rights, Women, sex

Freedom in Life and Its Necessity of Education (Published)

Freedom to carry out the decisions of an individual or community to do his will. If a man can take all the decisions, actions and organizational does not his limit he has absolute freedom. But because the people living in the community cannot have absolute freedom. Absolute freedom of the individual to society, leads to the violation of other people’s freedom. Every community has a special rule. As a result rules define the liberties of people in the world. And the Freedom to teach peoples that people according to this rate, to organize your life.

Keywords: Freedom, Human, Law, Learning, Teaching

Media Industry in the Light of the Judiciary Independence in Albania (Published)

The historical changes in our country as those of world historical periods of time have influenced considerably in the media evolution. The masmedia service as a service offered by third parties, with no participation from state, has been concessed to the private sector upon a rigid rule of the respect for the principles in a democratic society. The service of masmedia has some given features such as: (i) It is offered in respect of the public interest (ii) It is offered from the private profitable sector (with the exception of the state/public institutions) (iii)It should function as a watchdog of the other 3 state pillars executive, legislative and judicial. (iv) is should have an informative, educational, entertainment, investigative, cultural, scientific according to the characteristics of the community in a countr (v) It should be independent from any intervention. Media is established in the form of a commercial company, such form been given in accordance with the will of the founders, (members, shareholders, societies) as well as in accordance with the legal requirements.  Most of the countries legislation require for a company that offers media service to be registered in the form of a shareholder company (joint stock).

Keywords: Albania, Business, Freedom, Judiciary, Media, Speech