Tag Archives: Formative assessment

Relationship between Senior High School Teachers’ Knowledge and Practices of Continuous Assessment (Published)

One major concern of stakeholders in education across the world is how to improve students learning outcomes. To address this, a number of researchers have unearthed various factors that affect students’ learning outcomes and recommended ways of addressing these factors to improve students’ learning outcomes. This study is posited on the fact that key among these factors is the effect of teachers’ assessment practices. The study, therefore, sought to investigate the level of high school teachers’ knowledge of how to assess students’ learning and the relationship between their knowledge and how they implement it in assessing students’ learning formatively. A sample of 75 teachers and 750 students, selected from the 10 senior high schools in Southern Ghana participated in the study. Findings from the study showed, among other things, that though teachers have good knowledge of continuous assessment, there was a sharp contrast between this and their classroom practices. Implications of these findings for policy makers are discussed.

Keywords: Continuous Assessment, Formative assessment, teachers’ knowledge, teachers’ practices

Formative Assessment Practices, Attitude and Learning Outcome of Students in Mathematics in Selected Secondary Schools in South-South Nigeria (Published)

The study was conducted to examine the effect of formative assessment practices, and attitude on learning outcome of students in Mathematics in selected secondary schools in south-south Nigeria. Three research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The quasi-experimental design was used in the study with a population of all Senor Secondary school three (SS3) students in Mathematics in selected public secondary schools in south-south (Cross River, Rivers and Akwa Ibom States) of Nigeria numbering 21,657. The sample of the study consisted of 541 (2.5%), SS3 students in Mathematics. The proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed in the study. The instruments for data collection are; the Formative Assessment Practice Questionnaire (FAPQ), Attitude Scale (AS) and Learning Outcome Test in Mathematics (LOTM) which were validated by experts in Mathematics and Measurement and Evaluation. Internal consistency was established with split half reliability method and the index ranged from .78 to .92 respectively.  The stated hypotheses formulated for the study were tested at 0.05 level of significance using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA).  Findings from the study revealed that there is a significant effect of formative assessment, attitude and gender on learning outcome of students in Mathematics.

Keywords: Formative assessment, Learning Outcome, Mathematics, Practices, South-south Nigeria., attitude

Formative Assessment in the Social Studies Classroom: How Senior High School (SHS) Teachers in Ghana Actualise It (Published)

Formative assessment of students’ learning is said to have a positive impact on students’ learning, and thus the call on teachers to employ this mode of assessment in their classroom practices. There is however little indication that teachers in Ghana have heeded to this call. This study therefore sought to examine the formative assessment practices of six Senior High School (SHS) Social Studies teachers; conveniently drawn from the Northern and Central regions of Ghana. The study adapted the ‘Formative Assessment Classroom Observation and Lesson Planning Tool’ (FACOLPT) for data collection. Data collected were thematically analysed.  The study reveals that the assessment practices of these teachers are not in congruence with contemporary established practices.  It is therefore being recommended that teachers are given enough pre-service and in-service training in formative assessment so as to increase their understanding of the concept and also help reorient their beliefs.  It is believed that teachers, when adequately trained in this direction, will begin to see assessment more positively and use it not only to improve students’ performance but also to improve their own instructional practices.

Keywords: Criterion-Referenced, Feedback, Formative assessment, Learner Needs, Learning Goals, Norm–Referenced

Effect of Assessment for Learning (AFL) On Biology Academic Achievement of Senior Secondary Students in Rivers State (Published)

The study investigated Effect of Assessment for Learning (AFL) on Biology Academic Achievement of Senior Secondary Students in Rivers State. The researchers adopted a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental research design. The population of the study consists of 34,825, Senior Secondary Two (SS2) students duly registered in public secondary schools (2013/2014 Session) in the 23 Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of 400 Senior Secondary Two (SS2) students’ (200 males and females respectively) were sampled through multistage sampling technique in Ikwerre, Obio/Akpor, Ogu/Bolo, Okrika and Port Harcourt Local Government Areas. Students’ in intact classes were assigned to four experimental groups and one control group. Students’ in the experimental groups were subjected to the following Assessment For Learning strategies: use of questioning, comment only marking, self/peer assessment and formative use of summative assessment, while students’ in the control group were subjected to the traditional assessment method. Two research questions and two hypotheses were postulated for the study. A 40 item instrument titled: “Assessment For Learning Biology Achievement Test” (AFLBAT) developed by the researchers was used for data collection. The instrument was duly validated by three subject specialists and two experts in educational measurement and evaluation. An internal consistency coefficient of 0.71 was obtained using Rulon formula. Data for the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean, and standard deviation), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and paired sample t-test. The analysis of data was done using SPSS software. The result of the study revealed that: Assessment For Learning strategies effectively improved biology achievement of students’; biology academic achievement of students was enhanced by the following AFL strategies: use of questioning, comment only marking and self/peer assessment but the most effective is comment only marking; AFL has a significant effect on biology academic achievement of students. Based on the results of the study, the following recommendation among others was made by the researchers: a critical review of classroom assessment methods is advocated, especially in the aspect of comments made by teachers concerning learning outcome of students’.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Assessment for Learning, Biology, Formative assessment, Summative Assessment


Evaluation of students is an integral part of teaching and learning in Social Studies in the Colleges of Education in Ghana and is beneficial to both students and tutors if use formatively. This could be achieved if, tutors follow the laid down procedures in administering formative assessment in their colleges.This study adopted a case study research design. The study was carried out in three Colleges of Education in the Central Region of Ghana. The data were used together to form one case. Both the Tutors and the Colleges were purposively and conveniently selected for the study. Interviews and classroom observation were used. The semi-structured interview guide and the structured classroom observation setting checklists were administered to nine (9) Social Studies tutors. It was found that evaluation in the classroom motivates tutor-student relationship in formative assessment but it was observed that most of the tutors were not using concrete evaluation feedbacks. Clarifying and sharing learning intentions and criteria for success foster effective classroom discussions and learning tasks in formative assessment. Tutors agreed that the use of Formative Assessment Classroom Techniques (FACTs) is an integral part of teaching and learning

Keywords: Assessment, Evaluation. Students, Formative assessment, Learning, Social Studies