Tag Archives: Formal education

The Culture of Early Sex and Schooling of Girls in Kilifi County, Kenya (Published)

This study sought to find out the social structures and the underlying norms, attitudes and behaviours that obstruct girls’ empowerment and participation in formal education, in Kilifi County. Notably, Kilifi County makes a significant contribution to the Kenyan economy through tourism. However, a majority of its locals languish in poverty and hold onto retrogressive cultural practices that negatively influence education. The study used a total of 220 informants, including school girls, boys, head teachers, teachers and parents. Interviews, observation, FGDs and whole class mapping activities were used to generate data. Findings indicate that sexual intercourse was a reality among school girls. In conclusion, early sex is a deeply rooted cultural practice among girls in Kilifi that has negative implications to education for sustainable development. The paper recommends working on safety of school compounds, sensitizing communities on implications of early sex and initiating income generating activities for families among other things.

Keywords: Culture, Formal education, Girls, Re-Entry Policy, sex

Problematic Co-Existence of English Language and Nigerian Pidgin (Published)

The English language is the language of formal education in Nigeria. For some time now, students’ performance in the language at public examinations has been very unsatisfactory to the stakeholders in education. A linguistic problem is one crucial contributing factor. The research methodology combines two data gathering instruments: the questionnaire and examination of respondents’ written essay. The paper discovers that Nigerian pidgin is a linguistic force to reckon with as its co-existence with the all important English language requires a clinical attention by all: especially; the government, curriculum developers and teachers. Those who formulate policy on education would need to plan for the Nigerian pidgin, not only in order to arrest the ever sliding performance of students in English language, but also to improve it.

Keywords: English Language, Formal education, Nigerian pidgin, Students performance, co-existence, linguistic problem


The overall educational infrastructure is grossly inadequate in most of the Third World Countries, Kenya in particular; more so resources to institute appropriate environmental education are, for the most part, simply not available, even when this education is recognized as a desirable innovation. This paper sought to interrogate the current institutional environmental and educational arrangements and practices which are pertinent to the sustainable management of the Nandi Hills Forests, in Kenya. A mixed methodological design which incorporated both qualitative and quantitative methodologies was embraced. The methods included concurrent triangulation and nested/embedded designs. A four-tier analysis was carried out once all the data had been coded and grouped. This paper concludes that the contribution of indigenous knowledge to sustainable management of the Nandi Hills Forest is remarkable. This study brings to light the essence of environmental education that is incorporative of the community through formal and informal approaches in forest knowledge acquisition and management of the Nandi Hills Forests. As it is widely agreed that environmental education is the most effective means that society possesses for confronting the challenges of environmental degradation (Palmer, 1998), this study attempts to provide the necessary impetus both for the local community, the government and non-governmental institutions to understand and become involved in an integrated manner in the conservation of what remains on this ecosystem

Keywords: Conservation, Environmental Education., Formal education, Informal Education, Management


Education is a fundamental right of every person, a key to other human rights. Article 28 (1) of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), 1989, declares that all children have a right to education. The right to education requires that young people be given the opportunity necessary for the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that will enable them lead happy and productive lives as individuals and discharge their social duties for the betterment of life in the society. The shortcomings in the provision of education via formal education, calls for non-formal education as a complementary approach to enable the adult and out-of-school youth who are unable to access education in the formal way to access education. This study set out to investigate the role of non-formal education (NFE) in enhancing nomadic pastoralists’ children’s access to education in Kirisia division, Samburu County. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study. Research Question One aimed at establishing the trend of enrollment of pupils in the NFE programmes while research question two sought to determine the extent to which NFE programmes have enabled pastoralists’ children join the formal education. The study applied a descriptive survey design. Data were collected by use of questionnaires and interview schedules. The findings revealed that, NFE had increased nomadic pastoralists’ children’s participation in education. The NFE programmes had also enabled the pupils join the formal education sector. The study recommended that the government, the NGOs and other support groups should step up their support for the NFE programmes by for example supporting the teachers who are key facilitators of the programmes

Keywords: Alternative education, Formal education, Nomadic pastoralists, Non-formal education, Out-of-school children, Reflect circle members