Foreign Democratic Assistance to Nigeria (1999-2015): The Nexus between Strategy and Election Result (Published)
This study examined “Foreign Democratic Assistance to Nigeria 1999-2015: The Nexus Between Strategy and Election Results. The study employed survey method. This method enable the authors to gather data from representative of sampled institutions: civil societies, political parties, election umpire (INEC), security institutions, Donor Agencies and opinion leaders 252 respondents were drawn from these institutions. Data were obtained using interview instrument (participants’ perspective). The realistic theory of change by Anderson, a modification of carol (1972) change model theory was used as the framework of analysis. Analysis of data gathered shows the following results. (1) That Nigeria received democratic assistance between 1999-2015 from US, UK, EU and other major international partners engaging in democratic promotion. (2) That Nigerians need such gesture to strengthening her democracy. (3) That Donor’s emphasis on civil society have little influence on state institutions that control electoral process in Nigeria. (4) Donor’s impact is not felt in the area of party primary – selection of party candidates. Lastly the result shows that Nigeria’s democracy exists within the context of particular mode of production that link set of values preferred by the political elite. This provides the context for electoral misbehavior. Thus, election violence, rigging, manipulation and imposition of candidates that characterized Nigerian elections do not in any way relate or correlate with foreign democratic assistance objectives. Based on these, the study suggests modification of Donor’s strategy (inclusive strategy) that will not only strengthen civil society but also regulate the excessive use of state power by power mongers to cause electoral fraud and violence just to remain in power.
Television has been a very influential medium of mass communication, due to its audio and visual potentials. Scholars of communication have always researched into the influence of the various media of communication, particularly television on the society. These efforts provide useful information to individuals, groups and organizations that employ these media on how best to use them. The debate on whether television influences youth’s attitudes and behaviour has attracted diverse views supported by different researches. It is on this basis that this study examines the influence of television on the westernization of Nigerian youths. It is noteworthy that there is a growing worry over the decline of the cultural values of Nigerian youth. This ugly situation is sometimes tied to the influence of foreign television programmes. The foreign programmes do not only undermine the cultural values of Nigerian youths, but also influence the youths’ behaviour as well as the prevalence of foreign attitudes and habits among them. The study is driven by cultivation theory which suggests that heavy television viewing “cultivates” perceptions of reality consistent with the view of the world presented in television programmes. Some youth in Nigeria, considerably perceive that what they view on foreign television programmes is a reality, and to them, there is need to cultivate the habits, attitudes, behaviour and values as demonstrated in television programmes.
This paper investigates attitudes of non-native learners towards learning aspects of Arabic culture. To achieve the goal of the study, the researchers used a questionnaire. The sample included 43 students enrolled at Ali Baba International Center, Qasid Arabic Institute and Modern Arabic Language International Center (MALIC). Results showed that the non-native learners of Arabic have positive attitudes towards Arabic culture and they favored aspects such as rules and behaviors, customs and festivals, political institutions, history, family life and food.