Creating an institutional framework on a global scale to understand balance-of-power strategies is the crux of foreign policy today with United States superpower exceptionalism. ‘Altercating’ defence, diplomacy and development encapsulate the United States foreign policy in relation to national interests globally. Role theory applied in comparing the United States and Chinese grand strategies as case studies. The United States superpower statecraft’s clarity help superimposed any form of countervailing alliances globally; while China’s sociological pragmatist role currently could change based on ‘Power Transition Theory’ for hegemony power. Beijing is pursuing a grand strategy that combines both ‘internal balancing’ and external ‘soft balancing’, encapsulated as ‘warfare ecosystem construct’ as countervailing alliances for balance-of-power strategies with development of ‘Economic Corridors’ in East Asia ; and the United States ‘Globalization Agenda’ both executed as ‘mechanisms of power’ date back to their ‘hegemonic histories’ with adaptive construct for national interests.
National Interest and Warfare Ecosystem 2: Wicked Problems Framework and Policy Development (Published)
The pursuit of the national interest is closely linked to geography, strategy and contexts specific in foreign policy, anchoring remains significant and spatial to the Nation’s production possibility frontier with empirical case studies of China and the United States of America. Foreign policy solutions ‘desired outcome’ are in ‘the continuum’ termed poly singularity. Public value theory, Kingdon’s multiple streams approach and Baumgartner and Jones’s punctuated equilibrium theory (PET) was applied as critical thinking to captures decision constructive process of national interest with focus on value streams for stakeholders with the contexts specific situation illuminated as spatial polysingularity construct in framework. China’s ‘Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)’ Project altercasting as liberalist and realist for global economic and militarily power in East Asia. The United States energy interests drives its ‘Globalization Agenda and market economies’ globally. A new superpower crucible framework with win-win national interest’s scenario termed ‘warfare ecosystem’ postulated.
An Appraisal of Kashmir Conflict (Published)
India and Pakistan fought three wars (1948, 1965, and 1971). In May – June1999, once again Kashmir became the focus of World attention when India and Pakistan fought a limited war in Kargil heights located in the valley. Kashmirissue has been discussed many times between India and Pakistan. On 2 July 1972 Shimla accord, signed by Indra Ghandiand Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. On21 February 1999 the x-Prime minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif and Atal Behari Vajpayeesinged Lahore declaration .In July 2001 General Pervaz Musharaf visited India and attended Agra summit. When GeneralPervaz Musharaf took over the control of Pakistan, he changed the Kashmir policy, after9/11 Kashmir issue turned into anew and critical direction. India says Pakistan involves in terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir and on the other hand Pakistan without of the opinion and says that Kashmiris are fighting for their self-determination.
The study examined Nigeria Foreign Policy from 1960-2012. The objective was to find out whether there is any change in foreign policy orientation among the various regimes or administrations within the period of study. The method of study employed was historical and descriptive research study methods. To this end, the analysis was done thematically and the results or findings show that the logic and the instrumentality of domestic development linkage theory in foreign policy is virtually lacking in Nigerian foreign policy behaviour. This is because Afrocentric foreign policy commitment overwhelmingly overshadows domestic reality. Although the Obasanjo’s and Jonathan’s economic diplomacy try to aligned the nation’s economic reality (The NEEDS policy and Transformation agenda) with her international interaction, however, much of the foreign policy resources were not deployed to bear on the welfare of the citizenry hence, the current economic crisis in the country. Based on this, the study recommends a paradigm shift of using foreign policy as an instrument for the revitalizations and the diversification of the nation’s economy to engineer national development.