Existing risk-based inspection plans use descriptive terms to categorize the food establishments according to their risk levels, hence inspection visits are planned. The current paper hypothesized the reliance of the number of the yearly routine inspection visits to a food establishment on its risk level and a predetermined fixed inspection confidence level of 95% , accordingly a routine inspection visits planner and an inspection frequency calculator were developed. Similarly, a calculator was developed to predetermine the number of consignments to be inspected at the ports of entry of countries. Following the use of the risk levels between 99% and 1% and according to the obtained number of yearly visits to an establishment, 12 risk groups are reported with a corresponding frequency of inspection range from as minimum as 30 days to as high as 365 days. The findings will reform the risk grouping of food establishments from a static to a dynamic figure-based one thence help allocating resource and focus on the riskiest establishments. The imported consignments planner could easily be used and adjusted to suit calculating the approximate number of consignments to be inspected at the ports of entry based on any risk category.
Relationship between Quality Signals’ Credibility, Trust in Food System Actors, Perceived Quality and Intention to Buy (Published)
This paper investigates the relationship between brands/certification labels credibility, trust in food system actors, perceived quality and intention to buy food products. The sample, consists of a total of 317 rice consumers who purchase rice from modern retail outlets in cities of Saint-Louis, Thiès and Dakar. Data are collected through questionnaire and analyze through descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and an approach based on Ordinary Least Squares Regression and the Bootstrap Method. Brands and certification labels, considered here as two types of quality signals, are seperately studied. Findings indicate that brands/certification labels credibility has a direct and positive influence on intention to buy food products that have these types of quality signals. In addition, this relationship is mediated, both seperately and together, by trust in food system actors who issue these types of quality signals and perceived quality of these food products. A significant difference is found in the comparison to reveal the more powerful mediating variable in terms of mediation effect. The overall model for each type of quality signal is significant.
Appraisal of Some Chemical Elements of Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars in Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)
We are aware that many studies had been carried out in plantain research but less attention has been paid to individual characteristics of the nutrient composition in cultivars. A knowledge about specific traits in a cultivar will help to address issues concerning dieticians, nutritionists (human and animals), medical questions, pharmaceutical industries and others to effectively utilize the findings in their various disciplines. Appraisal of ten plantains(Musa paradisiaca) cultivars was carried out in Wilberforce Island, 2016, Bayelsa State,Nigeria. Materials were collected from Bayelsa State and Rivers State all in Nigeria. Crops were harvested late 2017 and samples were collected randomly and were subjected to proximate (%) and mineral nutrient analyses (mg/100g). Our records showed that moisture content in peels and food ranged from 73.825% Taraipe to 86.67% Indouberiba with a mean value of 81.6404% while in food it ranged from 53.8% Oyobaberiba to 78.64% Kalaasinberiba with an average value of 68.98%.Percentage ash content in peels swayed from 1,48% Keniipe to 2,124% Opuaasinberiba and the mean value is 1.65%, while that of the food ranged from 1,36% Keniipe to 2,246% Opuasinberiba with average content 1.806%.The values of percent protein in peels ranged from 3.87% Kalaasinberiba to 5.56% Agalaberiba and mean value 4,557%, that of food from 6.482% Sorainipe to 8,84% Agalaberiba with an average level of 7.661%. Lipid content in peels and food ranged from 1.488% Opuasinberiba to 3,28% Agalaberiba in peels and 1.426% Nianipe to 2.86% Agalaberiba in food with subsequent mean values of 2.1249% and 1.9971%.Percent composition of NFE in peels and food ranged from 86.03% Agalaberiba to 88.939% Taraipe and 0% Indouberibato 86.42% Niaipe with averages 88.1741% and 76.7284%. Calcium content in peels and food ranged from 16.64mg/100g Opoasinberiba to 34.72 mg/100g Agalaberibaand14.92mg/100g Opuasinberiba to 30.84mg/100g Keniipe with mean values of 23.721mg/100g and 22.092mg/100g.Magnesium (Mg) content in peels and food varied from 7.54mg/100g Keniipe to 10.6mg/100g Agalaberiba and 5.78mg/100g Maiipe to 8.74mg/100g Agalaberiba, while their mean values are 8.871mg/100g and 7.118mg/100g. Sodium (Na) content (mg/100g) in peels and food ranged from 10.66mg/100g Soranipe to 19.9mg/100g Agalaberiba and 8.46mg/100g Sorainipe to 17.84mg/100g Oyobaberiba with mean values of 14.414mg/100g and 12,217mg/100g.Potassium (K) content (mg/100g) in peels and food in ranged from 14.36mg/100g Oyobaberiba to 16.76mg/100g Indouberiba and 10.6mg/100g Keniipe to13.6mg/100g Sorainipe having mean values of 15.623mg/100g and 12.502mg/100g.Iron (Fe) content (mg/100g) in peels and food of plantain cultivars varied from 0.168mg/100 Indouberiba to 0.74mg/100gKeniipe and 0.287mg/100g Indouberiba to 0.725mg/100g Keniipe with average values of 0.4065mg/100g and 0.4687mg/100g. Manganese (Mn) of content in peels and food swayed from 0.138mg/100g Indouberiba to 0.216mg/100g Agalaberiba and 0.194mg/100g Taraipe to 0.242mg/100g Agalaberiba, while their mean values are 0.1749mg/100g and 0.2176mg/100g respectively.Copper (Cu) content (mg/100g) in peels and food ranged from 0.02038mg/100g Indoubariba to 0.092mg/100g Keniipe and 0.0342mg/100g Nianipe to 0.087mg/100g Keniipe with average values of 0.05054mg/100g and 0.0545mg/100g.Zinc (Zn) content (mg/100g) in peels and food oscillated from 0.106mg/100g Indouberba to 0.426mg/100g Keniipe and 0.136mg/100g Opuasinberiba to 0.42mg/100g Keniipe and means 0.2255mg/100g and 0. 2262mg/100g.Phosphorous (P) content (mg/100g) in values varied from 0.227mg/100g Indouberiba to 0.486mg/100g Agalaberiba and 0.354mg/100g Indouberiba to 0.542mg/100g Sorainipe with average values of 0.3214mg/100g and 0.424mg/100g.
Length-Weight Relationship, Condition Factor and Food and Feeding Habits of Seriola Dumerili (Risso, 1810, Carangidae) In Al-Hamama, Eastern Libya Mediterranean Sea (Published)
Stomachs of 235 pre-adult (PA) and 111 adult (A) Seriola dumerili obtained monthly from Al-Hamama (eastern Libya Mediterranean Sea) artisanal catch during November 2012 to October 2013 were examined to study food and feeding habits of the fish. The length-weight relationships of “PA” and “A” were W = 0.0437L2.819, n = 235, R2 = 0.99 and W = 0.019L2.873, n = 111, R2 = 0.99, indicating isometric growth. Annual ranges of monthly values of Fulton (KF) and Clark (KC) condition factors were 2.35 to 3.1 and 1.71 to 2.52 for “PA” and 0.98 to 1.44 and 0.69 to 1.22 for “A” in order. Relationships of both factors with fish length and months and seasons of the year were established. “PA” KF and KC recorded highest values in autumn and spring, which coincided with the period of highest degree of stomach fullness. “A” KF and KC recorded highest values in spring and summer, which coincided with the period of stomach fullness in spring and the spawning season in summer. Food items of “PA” according to order of importance were crustaceans, mollusks, polychaetes, sea grass and bony fish. Those of “A” were bony fish, mollusks, crustaceans, sea grass and polychaetes. Dependence of “PA” on crustaceans, mollusks and bony fish increased with increasing fish length while that on the other items decreased. Dependence of “A” on bony fish and mollusks increased with increasing fish length while dependence on the other items decreased. “PA” prefers feeding on crustaceans and sea grass in summer, on mollusks and bony fish in spring and on polychaetes in autumn. “A” prefers bony fish in autumn and summer, mollusks and polychaetes in spring, crustaceans in winter and sea grass in summer. Monthly and seasonal feeding intensity were established. The feeding intensity was high during autumn and spring for “PA” and moderate to high during all seasons for “A”.
An Empirical Study on the Relationship between Capital Structure and Corporate Performance in China’s Food and Beverage Industry (Published)
The listed companies in China’s food and beverage industry have good profitability and low risk. They have the characteristics of stable performance growth and broad space for development. These companies have always attracted the attention of many investors and have become a unique sector in the stock market. This paper firstly sort out literature review on impact mechanism between capital structure and firm performance, and then use 58 listed companies in China’s food and beverage industry from 2011 to 2015 as sample, meanwhile dividing the companies into high-growth and low-growth companies. Finally, the empirical test was conducted with fixed effect regression respectively. The empirical results show that there is a weak degree of negative correlation between asset-liability ratio and performance of listed companies in China’s food and beverage industry. It concludes that: China’s food and beverage companies prefer equity financing, failing to make full use of financial leverage, meanwhile there is a structural imbalance in the development of capital markets.
Recommendations Developing the Sustainable Food Value Chain of the Agricultural Sector in Dong Nai Province (Published)
Vietnam’s economy is increasingly integrated into the international economy. The key economic sectors in which agriculture is assessed will have many favorable opportunities for development. However, in order not to fall behind, the agricultural sector must rapidly develop the value chain. Moreover, the “4 houses” link in modern agricultural production is claimed to be the best one at present. The most important issue: what farmers produce, where to sell, how the price is the only satisfactory answer when there is clarification of roles and responsibilities of each house in the linkage. The role of “role play” is also intended to promote the overall strength of the link. There are 4 main factors: Government (State), Scientist, Enterprises and Farmer are the four main factors of linkages in agricultural production. In particular, the State is “the leader”, the engine of the link. Enterprises play the important role to link the remaining “4 houses” to form the raw material production area; Input support and product procurement for farmers; step by step to build brand name of agricultural products. The study results showed that there were 400 persons who include: 200 managers of enterprises, 170 farmers, 30 experts related to agricultural sector in Dong Nai province who interviewed and answered about 17 questions. The Data collected from June 2016 to April 2017. This study had been analyzed Cronbach’s Alpha testing, KMO testing and the result of KMO testing used for the multiple regression. Persons’ responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. The Data processed by SPSS 20.0. In addition, four components affecting the sustainable food value chain development with significance level 5 percent and then the researchers have recommendations developing the sustainable food value chain of the agricultural sector in Dong Nai province.
Investigation of Some Nutritional Properties of Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars in Bayelsa State (Published)
The objective of this study is to investigate some nutritional properties of thirteen plantain (Musa paradisiaca) cultivars. Samples collected were subjected to proximate analysis expressed in percentage and mg/100g. The investigation revealed that moisture content in peels ranged from 78.74% Asinberiba to 87.33% Makomuberiba H2, the mean is 83.75%, in food, from 38.78% Okpoisan to 66.03% Ikpiriberiba average in edible portion is 58.05%. Ash in peels from 0.87% Asinberiba to 2.38% Ikpiriberiba, the mean is 1.74% , ash level in food from 0.68% Okpoisan to 1.78% Makomuberiba H1,while the average is 1.27%. Protein in peels from 1.67% Kalabiouberiba to 4.2% Ikpiriberiba and from 2.76% Kalabiouberiba to 6.75% Ikpiriberiba in food and their mean values are 3.04% and 5.04%. Lipid in peels varied from 0.84% Asinberiba to 2.24% Biriyereyereberiba and the mean is 1.37%, in food from 0.96% Auberiba to 2.36% Ikpiriberiba with a mean of 1.57%. Fibre in peels from 2.38% Izonberiba to 3.72% Makomuberiba (H1), the mean is 2.91%, in edible portion from 1.88 Auberiba to 3.0% Okpoisan and the average is 2.47%. Dry matter in peels from12.67% Izuberiba(Biou) to 21.26% Asinberiba, in edible portion from 33.97% Ikpiriberiba to 65.74% Auberiba, the average in peels and in edible portion are 16.28% and 44.26%. Carbohydrate in peels from 88.84% Ikpiriberiba to 92.91% Makomuberiba H2, the mean is 85.47%, in edible portion from 87.22% Ikpiriberiba to 91.67% Kalabiouberiba with an average of 89.66%. Calcium in peels from 19.54mg/100g Izuberiba(Biou) to 28.56mg/100g Ikpiriberiba with a mean value of 23.72mg/100g, in edible portion, from 16.28mg/100g Izuberiba(Biou) to 25.80mg/100g Ikpiriberiba with a mean of 23.72mg/100g. Magnesium in peels varied from 5.53mg/100g Izuberiba(biou) to 9.2mg/100g Asinberiba with a mean of 7.62mg/100g, in edible portion from 4.5mg/100g Auberiba to5.83mg/100g with an average of 5.04mg/100g. Sodium (Na) in peels from 9.28mg/100g Izuberiba(biou) to 14.72mg/100g and the mean is 12.12mg/100g Ikpiriberiba, in edible portion from 7.73mg/100g Izuberiba (biou) to 13.60mg/100g Ikpiriberiba with a mean of 8.82mg/100g. Potassium(K) in peels from 4.81mg/100g Izuberiba(biou) to 9.52 mg/100g Okpoisan and the mean is 7.16mg/100g, in food from 4.0mg/100g Izuberiba (biou) to 8.55mg/100g Ikpiriberiba with a mean of 8.55mg/100g.Iron (Fe) in peels from 0.57mg/100g Auberiba to 2.23mg/100g Ikpiriberiba with a mean of 1.56mg/100g, in food from 0.63mg/100g Auberiba to 2.54mg/100g Makomuberiba(H2) and the average value of iron is 1.42mg/100g. Manganese(Mn) in peels from 0.12mg/100gIkpiriberiba to 0.56mg/100g Izonberiba and mean is 0.31mg/100g, in edible portion from 0.05mg/100g Auberiba to 0.57mg/100g Makomuberiba (H2), the average is 0.31mg/100g.Copper (Cu) in peels from 0.02mg/100g Makomuberiba (H2) to 0.22mg/100g Izonberiba, average in peels is 0.08mg/100g, in edible portions from 0.04mg/100g Biriyereyereberiba to 0.22mg/100g Makomuberiba (H2) with a mean of 0.13mg/100g. Zinc(Zn) in peels from 0.35mg/100g Auberiba to 1.14mg/100g Makomuberiba (H2) with an average of 0.78mg/100g, in edible portions from 0.21mg/100g Biriyereyereberiba to 1.07mg/100g and a mean of 0.64mg/100g. Phosphorus in peels from 0.17mg/100g Izuberiba (Izon) to 0.55mg/100g Makomuberiba (H1) and the mean is 0.30mg/100g, in edible portions from 0.13mg/100g Izuberiba (biou) to 0.43mg/100g Makomuberiba(H1) with an average of 0.23mg/100g.
Importance of Nutrition Education in Catering and Fast Food Business (Case Study of Sweet Savour Eatery and Royal Birds Motel, Akure Ondo State, Nigeria). (Published)
This paper examined the importance of Nutrition Education in Catering and Fast Food Businesses. People prefer eat out day –by-day as they have taken it to be a part of life. Everyone is getting busier in order to find means for survival and so hardly have time to prepare nutritious meals with appropriate calories. Secondary sources of data collection were employed to get relevant information. The result revealed that many live on fast food and catering products, hence the need for Nutrition Education, to help in the dietary intake. Various recommendations on how to achieve the objective of this research work were also highlighted.
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the natural environment and humans. Food packaging is an essential medium for preserving the food quality and minimising food wastage. When packaging waste is not properly handled or disposed, they have adverse or harmful effect on human health and also constitute environment, social and economic hazard. The study focused on the strategies for environmental protection against food packaging waste in Enugu state. Specifically, the study was designed to find out how recycling, reusing of food packaging wastes. A survey design was used for the study and questionnaire was used for data collection. The population of the study was 300 workers of Enugu State Waste Management Authority (ESWAMA). The data collected were analysed using mean and frequency, hypothesis was tested using chi square at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study showed that; recycling, reusing of food packaging wastes help in the environmental protection in Enugu state. It was recommended that; entrepreneurship should be encouraged in the area of recycling and reusing of food packaging wastes. It was also recommended that Enugu state government should encourage companies to design their product for re-use, recyclability and material reduction and those individuals should be encouraged to be environmental friendly.
The study focused on the influence of global warming on family living in Victoria Island in Eti-OSA Local Government Area of Lagos State. Specifically, the study was designed to find out the influence of global warming on food insecurity, family health and ways of reducing global warming in Victoria Island. The design of the study was descriptive survey. The sample size for the study was three hundred and ninety nine (399) households using random sampling techniques. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire and was validated. Reliability of the instrument was 0.75 established using Cronbach Alpha Coefficient. The research questions were answered on individual item basis using frequency and mean. The findings of the study revealed that global warming leads to huger, increases poverty, reduces food supply. It was also found that there is increase in malaria due to increase in spread of mosquitoes, heat rashes among others. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that educating people especially the younger generation about global warming through media, educational institutions and discouraging cutting of trees and encouraging large-scale tree planting because trees absorb carbon dioxide among others.
ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND MARKETING INNOVATIONS ON MEDIUM SCALE FOOD WHOLESALE MARKETING FIRM ABIA STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
The study assessed the effect of organizational and marketing innovations on selected medium scale food wholesale marketing firms in Abia State, Nigeria. The study focused on medium scale flour food wholesale marketing firms. The study employed a Yaro Yamen sample size estimation method to cull out 50 firms from the entire sample frame. These firms were randomly selected for the studies of various variables of interest. Data were gotten from respondents via questionnaire. The data analyses were carried out with descriptive statistics, income statement analysis, probit and multiple regression analyses. The study showed that the majority of flour food wholesale marketing firms in the study area were established between the periods of 6-10 years ago. The highest number of employee of the food wholesale marketing firms fall within the period of 11-20. The result also indicates that sole proprietorship were the highest ownership structure evidenced from the study. The greater number of the firms’ employee skills were semi-skilled. The firm’s major source of capital was gotten through equity source of finance. The dominant organization’s innovation strategies most adopted by the food wholesale firms were price strategy, product approaches, continuous and improvement aspect of innovation. The study however ensured a high quality management which confirmed a positive relationship between profitability and firms’ growth. This attests to a signal of efficiency in the firms’ management. The factors affecting organizational and marketing innovation strategies had significant relationships among the models respectively. Further, the effect of organizational and marketing innovation on medium scale flour food wholesale marketing firms performance and efficiency plausible as firm gross margin indicated sound profitability. Thus, there is the need for medium scale flour food wholesale marketing firms to employ the employ organizational and marketing innovation strategies complementarily in responding to the ever changing market needs of the food industry.