Tag Archives: Food Security

Trend Analysis of Rainfall Pattern in Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)

Rainfall distribution pattern has been a major concern to Climatologists, Penologists, Agriculturist hydrologist and even to the ordinary man in the street. Rainfall is a critical index of climatological investigation and has major impacts on flora and fauna, as well as ecological setting and water resources management of any area. Following the current moves by the governments to improve on agriculture; the pattern of rainfall is essential for indigenes of Enugu state since they are predominantly farmers. As the moves to encourage agriculture to ensure food security continues to gain ground and acceptability, information on rainfall probabilities is vital for the design of water supply and supplemental irrigation schemes and the evaluation of alternative cropping and of soil water management plans. This study has examined the pattern of rainfall in the state and observed some irregularities in the pattern. For government’s efforts towards improving agriculture to be fruitful, a more advanced technology of ensuring constant rain source is very vital.

Keywords: Agriculture, Enugu State, Food Security, Rainfall, Trend

Impact of Agricultural Extension on Food Security among Small Scale Farmers in Wareng District, Kenya (Published)

Agricultural extension is one of the effective tools in attaining the millennium development goals related to the reduction and eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in developing countries like Kenya. Despite that extension services were practiced for many years in Kenya, it is evident that these services have declined rapidly. This paper aims to find out the impact of extension on food security among small scale farmers in Wareng District. A survey of 120 smallholder farmers was used in the study. Though there was difference between farmers in different wealth categories, the mean difference is larger at the present compared to the past. Generally extension have played role in improving the living status of farmers in the study area. However, agricultural extension services seems to have an impact on improving food security in the country and increase the wealth gap between farming households and also replace local landraces with improved varieties. The study recommends that the Kenyan government should develop a new and expanded policy agenda for agricultural extension and communication for rural development focusing national attention on food security and income generation of the rural poor.

Keywords: Agriculture, Food Security, crops, extension, livestock’s

Impact of Agricultural Extension on Food Security among Small Scale Farmers in Wareng District, Kenya (Published)

Agricultural extension is one of the effective tools in attaining the millennium development goals related to the reduction and eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in developing countries like Kenya. Despite that extension services were practiced for many years in Kenya, it is evident that these services have declined rapidly. This paper aims to find out the impact of extension on food security among small scale farmers in Wareng District. A survey of 120 smallholder farmers was used in the study. Though there was difference between farmers in different wealth categories, the mean difference is larger at the present compared to the past. Generally extension have played role in improving the living status of farmers in the study area. However, agricultural extension services seems to have an impact on improving food security in the country and increase the wealth gap between farming households and also replace local landraces with improved varieties. The study recommends that the Kenyan government should develop a new and expanded policy agenda for agricultural extension and communication for rural development focusing national attention on food security and income generation of the rural poor

Keywords: Agriculture, Food Security, crops, extension, livestock’s

Determinants of Household Food Security and Coping Strategies: The Case of Bule-Hora District, Borana Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia (Published)

Now a day food security issues become one of the critical concern and top priority area for developing countries. Having clear picture on food security status and its major determinants helps policy makers and planners to devise new policies that enhance food security. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the status of food security in the study area, to identify the major determinants of food security among the rural household, and to identify coping strategies employed by different food security status groups to cope with food insecurity. In order to achieve these objectives biophysical; demographic and socio-economic data were collected from 140 randomly selected households in Bule-hora District of Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 5 PAs. A survey was conducted to collect primary data from sample respondent. Secondary data were collected from various sources. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, percentage and frequency distribution. Univariate analysis such as one way ANOVA and Chi-square tests were also employed to describe characteristics of food secure, food insecure without hunger, food insecure with moderate hunger and food insecure with sever hunger categories. The survey result shows that about 23% of sampled farmers were food secure. Ordered logit regression model was fitted to analyze the potential variables affecting household food insecurity in the study area. Among 14 explanatory variables included in the logistic model, 6 of them were significant at less than 5% probability level. These are; Cultivate Land Size (LAND SIZE), Livestock holding (TLU) and Improved seed (SEEDUSE), SEX of household head, Soil fertility status (SOIL FER) and non-farm income (INCOMEON). The estimated model correctly predicted 85.2% and different recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.

Keywords: Food Security, coping mechanism, logit model

Influence of Access to Land and Finances on Kenyan Youth Participation in Agriculture: A Review (Published)

The Kenya Government prioritized the development of the agricultural sector to achieving the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of sustainable food production. Kenya’s strategic plan, Vision 2030 positions agriculture as a key driver for delivering a 10% annual economic growth and is expected to have an average growth rate of 7% by 2015. Agriculture contributes over 80% of all employment opportunities in the country, but Kenyan youths are not taking advantage of these opportunities since 64% of them are unemployed. To advance the 7% average growth rate, it is pertinent that the Kenyan youth be fully involved in agricultural development. However, agriculture is perceived unattractive to the youth and its potential has not been fully realized. The purpose of this review is to find out the influence of land and finances on youth participation in agriculture and to identify the interventions that can make agriculture attractive to the youth in Kenya. This information will be useful to the government, the farming community, agriculturalists, policy makers and non-governmental organisations in laying strategies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth. This will subsequently enhance youth participation in agriculture resulting in increased food production, employment creation and income generation for the youth. Engaging the youth in agricultural activities will contribute in reducing crime and other social problems attributed to the youth.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economy, Food Security, Kenya, Youth

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING QUANTITY OF MAIZE MARKETED AMONG AGRICULTURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN OYO AND OSUN STATES, NIGERIA. (Published)

This research is a comparative analysis with a focus on the quantity of maize marketed and factors influencing such quantity among agricultural households in Oyo and Osun States of Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed to sample two hundred and twenty (220) maize farmers from Oyo while one hundred and eighty (180) maize farmers were selected from Osun for the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect primary data from the respondents. Data were obtained on socio-economic characteristics of respondents, production and marketing practices, prices and costs. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, an estimation of Cobb-Douglas regression model and the Chow’s F- test. The result showed that in Oyo state, mean age for respondents was 45.8 years while it is 42.7 years for Osun counterparts. The summary of sex distribution revealed that 70.9 percent of the Oyo respondents are male compared with 57.8 percent of Osun respondents. In addition, 17.7percent of Oyo respondents compared with 14.4 percent of Osun respondents had no formal education at all. The summary of marital status distribution of respondents showed that more than ninety percent of the interviewed farmers from each state were married while the major source of finance for the farmers from both states was personal savings. Regression analysis revealed the R-squared (R2) as 0.734 for Oyo while it is 0.794 for Osun. This showed that 73.4percent of the variation in quantity of maize marketed by respondents from Oyo was explained by the estimated variables while the variables explained up to 79.4 percent for Osun. The Chow’s f-test that was employed to measure the statistical difference between quantity of maize marketed by Oyo and Osun States respondents revealed that there is no significant difference

Keywords: Chow’s f-test, Food Security, Maize Marketing

INFLUENCE OF ACCESS TO LAND AND FINANCES ON KENYAN YOUTH PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURE: A REVIEW (Published)

The Kenya Government prioritized the development of the agricultural sector to achieving the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of sustainable food production. Kenya’s strategic plan, Vision 2030 positions agriculture as a key driver for delivering a 10% annual economic growth and is expected to have an average growth rate of 7% by 2015. Agriculture contributes over 80% of all employment opportunities in the country, but Kenyan youths are not taking advantage of these opportunities since 64% of them are unemployed. To advance the 7% average growth rate, it is pertinent that the Kenyan youth be fully involved in agricultural development. However, agriculture is perceived unattractive to the youth and its potential has not been fully realized. The purpose of this review is to find out the influence of land and finances on youth participation in agriculture and to identify the interventions that can make agriculture attractive to the youth in Kenya. This information will be useful to the government, the farming community, agriculturalists, policy makers and non-governmental organisations in laying strategies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth. This will subsequently enhance youth participation in agriculture resulting in increased food production, employment creation and income generation for the youth. Engaging the youth in agricultural activities will contribute in reducing crime and other social problems attributed to the youth.

Keywords: Agriculture, Economy, Food Security, Kenya, Youth

Food Sovereignty in the Era of Land Grabbing: An African Perspective (Review Completed - Accepted)

Food is a basic human right. One of the humanity’s significant achievements has been to produce adequate food for the largest growing population. However, the co-existence of chronic hunger and malnutrition with presence of adequate capacities and appropriate mechanisms to address it is one of the gravest paradoxes of our time. In one-third of African countries the average daily calorie intake remains below the recommended level of 2100 kcal. The need and importance for greater food sovereignty has emerged out of broader concerns over the negative impact of globalized world’s food system on food security and environmental sustainability. Adoption of the food sovereignty principles are essential to address hunger since they empower local communities to have greater control over their productive resources, use and sustain ecologically friendly means of production, and access local markets as well as nutritious and culturally accepted food. The majority of African farmers (many of them are women) are smallholders, with two-thirds of all farms below 2 hectares and 90 % of farms below 10 hectares. However, the existing trend of land grabbing especially in Africa seriously affects food sovereignty in an unprecedented level. The introduction of intensive agricultural production, due to land grabbing often based on a transformation of complex and diversified smallholder farming systems for export and commercial purpose can seriously threaten biodiversity and land and water resources. This paper explores different dimensions of the complex relationship between food sovereignty and land grabbing within the perspective of African countries

Keywords: Desertification, Food Security, Food Security Governance, Food Sovereignty, Land Grabbing

Determinants of Food Security in Female-Headed Households Involved In Individual Tenure System in Abia State, Southeast Nigeria (Published)

This study on determinants of food security in male and female-headed households involved in individual tenure system in Abia State, Southeast Nigeria was carried out to determine the quantities of cassava demanded and supplied by gender in individual tenure systems in the area and identifying the factors affecting food security of female-headed cassava-based farming households under individual tenure system. A multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted for this study while data were collected through primary sources. The sample size consists of male and female headed households for individual tenure respectively making a total of 234 cassava farming household respondents. Descriptive statistics as well as multiple regression technique were employed in analyzing the field data. Male headed households demanded and supplied more cassava tubers than the female headed households. Again, quantity of cassava tubers demanded were higher than that supplied in male headed households than their female counterparts. Results show that farm income, farm size, farming experience, membership of co-operative organisation, access to credit, extension contact and extent of produce commercialization were factors that affect food security among female headed households involved in Individual Land Tenure System. Land policies should be aimed at making land free for female headed farm households for farming.

Keywords: Abia State, Food Security, Tenure system

Comparative Analysis of Factors Influencing Quantity of Maize Marketed Among Agricultural Households in Oyo and Osun States, Nigeria (Published)

This research is a comparative analysis with a focus on the quantity of maize marketed and factors influencing such quantity among agricultural households in Oyo and Osun States of Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed to sample two hundred and twenty (220) maize farmers from Oyo while one hundred and eighty (180) maize farmers were selected from Osun for the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect primary data from the respondents. Data were obtained on socio-economic characteristics of respondents, production and marketing practices, prices and costs. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, an estimation of Cobb-Douglas regression model and the Chow’s F- test.

The result showed that in Oyo state, mean age for respondents was 45.8 years while it is 42.7 years for Osun counterparts. The summary of sex distribution revealed that 70.9 percent of the Oyo respondents are male compared with 57.8 percent of Osun respondents. In addition, 17.7percent of Oyo respondents compared with 14.4 percent of Osun respondents had no formal education at all. The summary of marital status distribution of respondents showed that more than ninety percent of the interviewed farmers from each state were married while the major source of finance for the farmers from both states was personal savings. Regression analysis revealed the R-squared (R2) as 0.734 for Oyo while it is 0.794 for Osun. This showed that 73.4percent of the variation in quantity of maize marketed by respondents from Oyo was explained by the estimated variables while the variables explained up to 79.4 percent for Osun. The Chow’s f-test that was employed to measure the statistical difference between quantity of maize marketed by Oyo and Osun States respondents revealed that there is no significant difference.

 

Keywords: Chow’s f-test, Food Security, Maize Marketing