Tag Archives: Fluency

The Oral Error Correction (Published)

This study focuses on the oral error correction techniques applied by teachers when a student commits errors during oral activities whether speaking or reading. It also examined whether teachers’ ways of error correction affected students’ participation in oral activities. An observation was utilized for the data collection. Findings showed that students were affected positively or negatively by the teacher’s error corrections. They also draw the attention for importance of the scientific ways of correcting errors. This study concludes with the idea that English teacher should get involved in such self-observation studies in order to realize their current practices in the classroom. The data yielded a number of interesting findings which showed that there were differences and similarities between male and female teachers in the ways of correcting students’ oral errors. At the end of this thesis, recommendations and suggestions were given.

Keywords: Fluency, Mistake, Oral Errors, Techniques

Task Based Grammar Instruction for Social and Academic Interaction (Published)

Learning English for Academic and Specific Purposes helps the English as Second Language learners to be communicative in academic social contexts. Focus on form is an important part of learning English for academic purposes. The ability to use appropriate vocabulary and structure in a meaningful context is what an English for Specific Purpose learner dreams about for academic excellence. Such an ability would undoubtedly motivate learners to learn and produce English for social and academic purposes. This could happen only when the learner develops his repertoire of grammar which is no less an outcome of the teaching and learning process. The present paper deliberates on how a language class focused on form could unassumingly involve the ESP learners think creatively in a task based role play activity as a main activity to negotiate meaning with their peers using the language syntaxes and lexis appropriate to the context.

Keywords: Academic Excellence, Competence, English for Specific Purpose learner., Fluency, Proficiency

An Investigation of the Effects of Reciprocal and Non- Reciprocal Listening Tasks on Iranian EFL Learners’ Speaking Ability (Published)

Recent research into task-based language teaching and learning claims that manipulation of task characteristics and processing conditions can focus a learner’s attention on the competing goals of accuracy, complexity, and fluency. The objective of this study is to understand whether reciprocal and non-reciprocal listening tasks have different effects on Iranian EFL learners’ speaking ability in terms of fluency. For this purpose, forty students of intermediate level were chosen and then randomly were assigned into two groups of experimental and control groups. Data analysis showed that performing reciprocal listening tasks had different effects on students’ fluency, compared to those that didn’t receive these types of activities. Based on the results of this study, it is imperative that teachers consider the types of listening activities that can have influence over language learners’ speaking ability.

Keywords: Fluency, Non-Reciprocal listening Task (Non-Interactive), Reciprocal Listening Task (Interactive), input.

The Impact of Task Repetition on Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity (Published)

A number of strategies, which can utilize various tasks to develop accuracy, fluency, and complexity in language have been proposed. With past studies indicating that repetition of tasks have a positive effect on these basic goals of speech while today’s studies contradict the same, it was interesting carrying out a study on this topic. The study was to examine the kind of influence that task repetition has on the students’ performance in terms of accuracy, fluency, and complexity. Two pairs of students were given a describing-picture task, which was repeated two times. Unexpectedly, the results were opposite to that indicated in the literature. The result revealed that repetition of tasks had no remarkable effect on the students’ performance. This was a clear deviation from the findings of the past studies, which had shown a clear relationship between task repetition and the three basic goals of speech. This study will highlight on the methodologies, analysis, results, and the subsequent conclusions that were reached during the study

Keywords: Accuracy, Complexity, Fluency, Task, repetition


This paper uses a predominantly quantitative approach to establish the relationship between error correction feedback mechanisms and students’ ESL writing Fluency (narrative and descriptive) amongst high school students in Botswana. A longitudinal, quasi-experimental design is used, with a control group that received no correction feedback while the experimental groups received direct, coded and uncoded feedback. The study is defined by a hypothesis that there is a relationship between feedback mechanism used and the development of fluency in students’ writing. Students were drawn from two Form 4 classes from one private co-educational secondary school. The Form 4 class was chosen because it was a pre-candidate class and the students were expected to sit for their BGCSE examination the following year in Form 5. There were 28 males and 40 females and their ages ranged between 16 years and 21 years. From the findings, no significant increases in fluency were found between the pretests and posttests. Correction success achieved by the three treatment groups when rewriting texts reflected the explicitness of the feedback, with the direct group highest, followed by the coded and uncoded groups.

Keywords: Coded feedback, Direct feedback, Fluency, Relationship, Students’ Writing, Teacher Error Correction Feedback Mechanisms, Un-coded feedback


In the majority of EFL curricula, students are required to give presentations in the target language. Although fluency might cause difficulty in presenting in English, other factors have shown to affect the students’ performances. This study investigates the effect of confidence on the students’ daily use of English generally, and during presentations more precisely. The study analyses questionnaires distributed to 156 students that aim at motivation, confidence and the amount of FL use. In addition, 36 students participated in group interviews to discuss the problems they face during presentations and the issues that they fear. After analyzing the findings and comments provided by interviews and questionnaires, the researchers found that the lack of confidence causes an enhancement in language mistakes. It was also found that the main reason behind the lack of confidence in presenting in English, among other reasons, was the lack of experience and practice. Hence, this paper recommends practice and constant encouragement by the teacher to improve EFL students’ presentations.

Keywords: Conversation, EFL, English language teaching, Fluency, confidence, practice