Tag Archives: Flour

Quality Evaluation of Cookies Made From Wheat Flour Fortified With Tiger Nut Flour and Date Palm Fruit (Published)

Cookies are baked food that is typically small, flat and sweet. It usually contains flour, sugar and other ingredients. Tiger nut is globally recognized for its nutritional, functional and medicinal properties that are suitable for children, grownups and sport men. However, it is highly underutilized. The inclusion of date palm fruit in the production of cookies from wheat flour fortified with tiger nut flour enhances good sensory attributes and reduces the risk of diabetics associated with consumption of granulated sugar as sweeteners. The samples were formulated as 75%, 15% and 10%; 70%, 20% and 10%; 65%, 20% and 15%; 60%, 15% and 25%; and 50%, 30% and 20% of wheat flour, tiger nut flour and date palm fruit respectively. Pasting properties of composite flour, proximate and microbial analyses of the products were determined. Pasting properties showed that peak viscosity (2093 – 2792) RVU; trough viscosity (1480 – 2031) RVU; breakdown viscosity (434 – 759) RVU; final viscosity (3016 – 3258) RVU; setback viscosity (1210 – 1536) RVU; pasting temperature (68.20 – 71.55)oC; and pasting time (8.77 – 9.31) minutes. Proximate analysis showed that crude protein (11.33 – 11.99)%; crude fat (1.25 – 2.36)%; crude fibre (1.88 – 2.40)%; total ash (1.68 – 1.89)%; moisture content (10.83 – 12.63)%; and carbohydrate (68.48 – 70.89)%. Microbial count of the cookies showed that at week 0, there was no growth both in the nutrient agar plates and in the potato dextrose agar plate. From week 1 to week 3, total viable count in cookies stored at ambient condition was found to be higher than those stored in the refrigeration and freezing condition. However, bacterial count was found to be higher in week 1, 2 and 3 for each storage condition. At p˂0.5 level of significance, there was no significant difference in most sensory attributes considered. Overall acceptability of cookies were rated high between like slightly and like extremely. This is an indication that apart from additional nutritional benefit, organoleptic quality and suitability of the food satisfied consumer’s perception.

Keywords: Flour, Proximate, Quality, Sensory, microbial, pasting

Chemical and Functional Properties of Wheat, Pigeon Pea and Plantain Composite Flour (Published)

This work was aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, some anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of composite flour produced from wheat, pigeon pea and unripe plantain. Four blends of composite flour were formulated by homogeneously mixing wheat flour, pigeon pea flour and plantain flour in the proportion of 95:5:0 (WPF), 85:10:5 (WPU1), 75:15:10 (WPU2), 65:20:15 (WPU3), respectively, while WHF represented 100% wheat flour served as control. The result of proximate composition signified that there were significant (p<0.05) increases in crude protein (13.25-16.10%), moisture (6.30-10.41%), ash (0.62-1.69%) and crude fibre (0.42-1.13%) content with the inclusion of pigeon pea and plantain flours. Significance reductions in crude lipid (2.84-1.82%) and carbohydrate (76.56-68.85%) contents were observed while energy value was not significantly (p>0.05) different from the control. The anti-nutrient composition of the blends showed significant reduction of HCN (10.71-8.87 mg/100g), oxalate (180.08-90.04 mg/100g) and tannin (13.02-10.23 mg/100g) contents while highest value (1.35 mg/100g) of phytate was observed in WPU2. Bulk density, foaming, water absorption and oil absorption capacities ranged 1.20-1.30 g/ml, 3.70-13.79%, 6.20-6.60 g/g, 6.00-6.40 ml/ml, respectively while swelling index ranged 28.50-32.00 ml/ml. This study showed that fortifying wheat flour with pigeon pea and plantain flours is a significant way of improving nutritive quality, especially the protein and also increased the functionality of the blends when compared with the control.

Keywords: Capacities, Control, Flour, blends, unripe plantain


The Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds were processed into full fat flour, defatted flour, protein concentrate and protein isolate. The physico-chemical and functional properties of some of the flour samples were investigated. The effects of pH and temperature on some functional properties of the samples were also examined. The protein content of the concentrate and isolate had a higher value of 47.50% and 78.01% respectively compared with full fat and defatted flour that had 22.70 ± 0.00% and 24.51± 0.01% respectively. The protein concentrate and isolate have no fat and fibre content. The protein, carbohydrate, moisture, fat and fibre content had significant difference on different flour samples at p<0.05. The water absorption capacity had significant difference on the defatted and full fat flour at p<0.05. The effect of temperature on the water absorption of the flours increased with increasing temperature. There is decrease in wettability with increase in temperature as well foaming capacity which increased with increasing temperature. The effect of pH had higher wettability and foaming capacity. pH lowered water absorption and swelling index of the defatted and full fat flour. The black bean flour had good functional properties and thereby can be used in the food system.

Keywords: Black bean, Flour, functionality, physico - chemical, protein concentrate, protein isolate


The Mahogany bean also known as “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) seeds were divided into three portions. The first sample coded with R10, R20 and R30 was processed by roasting at 1000C (for 10, 20 and 30 minutes) respectively and second sample of the seeds coded C40, C50 and C60 were cooked at 1000C (for 40, 50 and 60 minutes) respectively while the raw unprocessed (third sample) served as the control. The proximate compositions showed significant difference at (P< 0.05) in some nutrients evaluated. In terms of moisture content, all the cooked samples (C 40, C50 and C60) were higher (28 – 33.5%) than the Control (10.5%) and roasted (4.5 – 6.5%) samples. Also the ash content for the roasted and cooked samples were significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than the control sample (4.0%). The protein content of the raw sample (38.4%) was significantly higher at (P< 0.05) than all the samples treated by roasting and cooking. In terms of fat content, all the roasted samples had higher values (28.0 – 35.5%) than the raw (9.5%) and cooked (7.0- 8.0%) samples which were significantly different at (P< 0.05). The functional properties of the “Akparata” (Afzelia africana) flour with respect to bulk density showed that the roasted samples were higher (0.62 – 0.68g/ml) than the cooked (0.47 -0.54g/ml) and raw (0.60g/ml) samples . In water absorption capacity, all the values obtained in roasted and cooked samples were higher than the control (2.83%). This trend is also similar to oil absorption capacity. With respect to the foaming capacity, the control sample had higher value of (5.66%) when compared to the roasted (0.91 -3.23%) and cooked (1.12 -1.14%) samples. For the viscosity, the raw sample gave the highest value (16cp) when compared to roasted (6 – 10cp) and cooked (5 – 8cp) samples

Keywords: Akparata seeds, Flour, Functional, cooking, roasting


A detailed analysis of the indices of organizational and marketing innovations has been examined in this study. The specific objectives duly analyzed were identification of the features of small scale flour marketing firms; analysis of the profitability and efficiency of the firms using income statement; ascertaining the determinants and indices of organizational, marketing and technological innovations. The technique of data collection was firstly a purposive sampling method to choose Aba and Umuahia Metropolis and small scale flour marketing firms and; secondly a random sampling selection technique was employed in selecting fifty specific firms for the study. The data elicited from sampling of fifty small scale flour marketing firms were analysed via descriptive statistics, income statement, probit and Ordinary Least Square Multiple regression analyses. The report from the results analyses showed that the significant indices of marketing innovation were price strategy, promotion strategy, distribution method, sales method, packaging and production strategies. On the other hand, significant indices of organizational innovation included work arrangement, quality management, motivation, use of promotion, product modification and employee schedule. The organizational innovation was highly significant than marketing innovation of small scale flour marketing firms in contributing towards enhancing the performance of small scale flour marketing firms. Thus, the organizational and marketing innovation indices analyzed in this work remained very significant and highly important tools for profitable marketing activity and in unlocking the marketing potentials of the firms and in encouraging competitive advantage over other firms that were indifferent about the strength of these organizational and marketing innovations. The study indicated that any small scale flour marketing firm that adopted for proper marketing and organizational innovations adapted successfully to emerging marketing challenges. Thus, it is recommended that small scale flour marketing firms should properly engage in organizational innovation involving work arrangement and effective employee work schedule which will contributing efficiently to better firm performance. Further, it is recommended that small scale flour marketing firms should include in their innovation portfolios price strategy, promotion strategy, distribution method, sales method, packaging, motivation, work arrangement, and product modification respectively which have the potentials to sustain the performance of the firms extensively.

Keywords: Determinants, Firm, Flour, Innovations, Marketing, Modeling, Organizational