In August 15, 2016, there was a heavy down pur leading to Ado river in Karu local government of Nasarawa State overflowing its banks resulting in flooding in which about 500 houses properties were destroyed and some residents lost their lives. The researchers found it necessary to assess the psychological sequelae associated with the flooding and how people were coping. Cross sectional descriptive design was sued to study 257 respondents selected through multistage sampling technique. Respondents were administered with PTSD checklist and coping styles apart from the demographic characteristics of respondents. Of the 257 respondents, the most frequent psychological sequelae (PSTD) were destruction of personal property (96.1%), being evaluated from the community (96%), being startled (88%). Higher percentage of male respondents put up active coping strategy while 48.5% adopted active coping styles. 85% of female respondents and 75.6% males turned to religious activities as coping styles.It was concluded that post-traumatic stress disorder should be considered anytime a natural disaster like flooding occurs. In such occasion mental health of the community members should be protected it was recommended that adequate channelization should be carried out and community member should be discouraged from dumping refuse in the camals.
Effect of Flooding On Urban Development (Case Study of Yenagoa and Environs, Bayelsa State-Nigeria (Published)
This study was conducted to determine the effect of Flooding on Urban Development as occasioned in Yenagoa and environs of Bayelsa State-Nigeria. Data of the study was obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Research instruments such as questionnaire, interview and observation methods were used for data collection from individual respondents and organizations within the study area. Ten Communities within Yenagoa metropolis which were identified as flood-prone were used for the study. Simple percentages and tables were used for data analysis. The study came up the with the findings that; there is significant relationship between Flooding and Urban Development; that urban physical development planning in the study area is not in accordance with town planning standards e.g. unavailability of functional drainages, encroachment of buildings on flood plains, stream and creeks is also some of the causes. The study however, recommended some strategies that would help to solve the above stated findings and problems caused by flooding in the Study Area.
Floodplain Determination Using Geographical Information System (GIS) (A Case Study of Ogunpa River in Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria) (Published)
Flood causes loss of life, destruction of public and private properties and disrupts the normal cultivating cycle. Floodplains are important land features that are highly discriminated from the neighboring uplands in terms of their hydrological and geomorphologic processes. Ogunpa area which is liable to flood has witnessed an encroachment by urban settlements within its precinct. This has been accompanied by inundation which is retained on the land as a result of the impervious nature it has turned into. The aim of this project is to produce a floodplain map within River Ogunpa catchment. The geometric data for the river and flood plain were extracted from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using Geographic Information System. The Study analyzed the morphometric parameters of Ogunpa catchment area located in four local government of Ibadan which are Ibadan north local government, Ibadan south local government, Ibadan north east local government, Ibadan south north local government, determining areas which are prone to flooding. Data used were generated from topographical map of Ibadan scale 1:25,000 A triangular irregular network (TIN) was created to satisfy the Delaunay triangle criterion, which ensures that no vertex lies within the interior of any of the triangles in the network. Result obtained indicated that Ogunpa River exhibits high spatial variation in their properties. Ogunpa’s water profile increases as the water flows downstream. The result revealed the flow direction of flood water in the area. The water profile increases as one move downstream along the length of the river. It was observed that most of the area was under medium hazard zone. The river has high tendency to flood due to its flat or low-lying terrain. Little or no provision has been made for surface drainage to aggravate the situation. Municipal waste refuse and eroded soil sediments contributes to the lower course stagnation of the river, resulting in poor drainage and tendency for flooding, the existing drainage basin are likely to induce high magnitude of flooding
UW-WSNs have many challenges with respect to design and routing. UW-WSNs differ from terrestrial networks in many aspects. Many design issues like limited bandwidth, high bit error rate with losses of connectivity and high propagation delay make out-of-water routing techniques unsuitable for underwater environment. In this article, routing techniques which are based on flooding will be discussed keeping in mind all the major challenges which we are not facing in terrestrial networks.
Assessment of Flooding On the Secondary School Students in Ogba / Egbema / Ndoni Local Government Area in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
This study assesses the effects of flooding on the Secondary School Students in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria, which occurred in October 2012. Data of this study were obtained from questionnaires, interview, personal observation, and newspaper report. A total of 90 respondents, drawn from residents in flood prone areas, were sampled for this study. Survey method was used in the analysis of data. The result of analysis showed that floods in Omoku occurred mostly at the event of rainfall intensity and amount and especially at rainy season but this particular flood occurred in October 2012 after the main rainy season (August/September). Factors other than rainfall identified to substantially influenced flooding in the study are: lack of good drainage network, dumping of wastes / refuse in drainage and water channels, topographic characteristics, overflowing of riverbanks, low infiltration due to high water table and degree of built up areas leading to increased runoffs, and climate changes. Despite the flood hazards, occupants in flood prone area have remained on the basis of no alternative, cultural ethnic affinity, schools, family home, place where students stayed used to flooding as the whole area suffered from flooding nature of occupation, and cheaper houses to rent, animals, and farm lands which will lead to hunger in the future in those affected areas, personal properties and public infrastructures also suffered all forms of flood damages. Flood mitigation measures also include river rechannelisation, raising school foundations, use of sand bags bridges and neighbor community efforts. Public enlightenment and necessary legislation and enforcement are recommended to checkmate activities aiding flooding