Tag Archives: Flood

Rural Strategies for Flood Resilience: Analysis of Community Actions in Narayani River Basin, Nepal (Published)

In the context of Nepal, the most devastating disaster is flood in terms of the number of human causalities, livestock, livelihoods losses and damages. There are structural, soft structural, and nonstructural methods to reduce flood risks. In addition to these methods, there are also community actions being used for several years in the rural communities to mitigate, respond, and recover from the impacts of floods. The main objective of the research is to present an analysis of such community actions in the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) cycle, livelihood capitals, and Early Warning System (EWS) and then to summarize the conclusion.  Accordingly, research was carried out in two communities, Kudiya and Paklihawa of Narayani river basin at Susta Rural Municipality, Nawalparashi-west, Nepal. The paper illustrates overall rural strategies adopted by community people to cope, withstand, and recover from the impacts of flood. The paper also includes an effective and efficient holistic approach to explain community-level empirical evidence. The paper illustrates the overall findings about community actions contributing to flooding resilience and these empirical evidences are found relevant, realistic, practical, and durable solutions in reducing the flood risks in the rural context of Nepal.

Keywords: Community, Flood, Livelihoods, Resilience, actions, capitals

Factors Associated to Flood Resilience Measurement in Narayani River Basin, Nepal (Published)

Resilience measurement is burning discourse these days for most of the international humanitarian and development works. Building resilience is important aspect for sustainability and ownership of a particular community for any development programing; and similarly measuring the resilience is crucial to showcase the evidence of change in the development works. There is growing need to invest in its measurement approach that enhance the resilience-especially related to the flood. The main objective of this research is to identify the factors, which contribute to the flood resilience measurement that explains community-level empirical evidence. Accordingly, research was done in two communities of Narayani river basins at Susta Rural Municipality, Nawalparashi-west, Nepal. The paper illustrates overall findings include factors contributing to the flood resilience measurement and how these factors are categorized and mapped out in the flood resilience measurement in general.  The factors associated with livelihood capitals, resilience properties, and the DRR cycle have a great impact than others in community resilience. The paper also highlights comparative analysis on one community to another and one factor to another and presents process-oriented community actions and empirical evidence from the research findings that contribute to flood resilience measurement.


Keywords: Flood, Measurement, Resilience, capitals, sustainable livelihoods framework

An Assessment of Post-Flood Disaster Risk Recovery and Reconstruction Responses of Urban Households in Makurdi Metropolis, Nigeria (Published)

Flood disaster is increasingly becoming a common occurrence around the world due to unwholesome human activities and climate change affecting urban areas including Makurdi metropolis in Benue state, Nigeria. Given its geographic location in the Benue valley and geophysical characteristics, Makurdi regularly experiences flood disaster during rainy season with the 2012 flood event been the worse with considerable impacts on the lives and properties of urban households. This study assesses the 2012 post-flood disaster risk recovery and reconstruction responses of urban households in Makurdi metropolis. Data was collected from 200 affected households of the 2012 flood disaster in flood prone areas of the town through physical observation and questionnaire administration, and was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. The result of the study reveals different levels of damages caused by the flood in the study area with destruction of residential houses accounting for the highest (30.6%). Post-disaster recovery and reconstruction responses vary among households with low-income households being the most vulnerable and 85% have not fully recovered from the disaster. The study reveals varying nature of recovery efforts undertaking by the affected households in the study area with 38.9% of them rehabilitated their residential buildings. The highest post-flood recovery assistance accounting for 82.4% came from victims’ relatives/friends. Based on the findings, the study recommends for more sensitization of the public on proactive flood disaster risk management through preparedness; readiness, response and recovery/rehabilitation with involvement of all stakeholders in the study area.

Keywords: Flood, Makurdi metropolis, Nigeria, post-disaster risk, recovery and reconstruction, urban households

Assessment and Control Measures of Flood Risk in Ajibode Area of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

Flood is one of the major factors that prevent Africa’s population from escaping poverty level. The most hit by flood are usually urban poor who have less choice, but to end up living in flood prone areas. Ravaging flood events in Nigeria can be dated back to 1963 in Ibadan city, when Ogunpa River was over-flown causing loss of lives and properties. Many factors have been attributed as the resultant factors leading to floods in literature. This study thus assesses flood risk and its control measures in Ajibode area of Ibadan, Oyo state, while appropriate recommendations are made in order to reduce flood risk in the study area. In order to achieve this, questionnaires were administered through random systematic sampling technique to the household heads of 216 buildings from 720 buildings as the sampling frame of the study. Chi-square test reveals significant relationships between annual house rent and monthly income of the respondents with their vulnerability to flood with p-values of 0.00 and 0.04 respectively.

Keywords: Channelization, Control, Flood, Hazard, Measures, Nigeria, Risk, Urban, river

The Damage of Deli River Watershed Causing Flood, Medan, Indonesia (Published)

The determination of the Deli watershed, Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia  as a critical watershed is because the critical land area is almost half of the total Deli River area, which will theoretically affect the sustainability of the land and water resources of the Deli watershed area. The watershed is a land area bounded by a natural boundary of topography that serves to accommodate, store, and drain the water received to the nearest river system which further leads to reservoirs or lakes or seas. the damage to agricultural land is increasing. This may result from erosion, water logging, accumulation of salts in saline areas, the accumulation of elements or compounds that are toxic to plants due to the use of chemical fertilizers and chemical drugs continuously every year. Deli land destruction is dominated by biophysical factors, especially land use, slope, landform, and rainfall in the upstream Deli sub watershed.

Keywords: Deli River, Flood, Restoration, Watershed

Influence of Coastal Challenges on the Operations of Small Scale Fish Business in Akwa Ibom Coastline Communities, Nigeria (Published)

Coastal challenges is one of the obvious problems facing fish business in Akwa Ibom State as none over the years has grown from small to large scale. In this study, effort was made to determine the extent to which coastal challenges could influence the operations of small scale fish business. Three research questions were answered in the study and three null hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. Related literature and empirical studies were reviewed. The population of the study comprised 1420 small scale fish business operators from fifty one fishing communities that spread across eight Local Government Areas that situate along the coastal bank. Stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 312 small scale fish business operators. The researcher developed 30-items structured questionnaire (which were equally interpreted in local dialects) for data collection. The questionnaire items were face validated by three experts, two from Department of Vocational Education and One from Department of Educational Foundation; all from University of Uyo, Uyo. Cronbach Alpha method was used in calculating the reliability of the instrument and a correlation coefficient index of 0.82 was obtained which showed that the instrument was reliable. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for research questions while the null hypotheses were tested to determine the extent of influence using t-test. The findings of the study indicate that flood, sea piracy, and coastal storms have high influence on the operation of small scale fish business. It was recommended that Akwa Ibom State Government should design an Incentive-Based Risk Sharing System (IBRSS) for fish business operators to enable them contain risk associated with coastal storms and should set up agencies like Local Coast Guard (LCG) and Distress Response Team  (DRT) among others. These agencies will help stem the activities of pirates

Keywords: Coastal Challenges, Fish Business and Coastline Communities, Flood

Effects of Flooding On Soil Quality in Abakaliki Agro-Ecological Zone of South-Eastern State, Nigeria (Published)

The study focused on the Effects of Flooding on  Soil Quality in  Abakaliki Agro-ecological Zone of South-Eastern State, Nigeria, for proper soil and flood management to avert  soil  degradation. Soil samples were  collected from three different floodplains and from arable land at the middle of the stream as control at the depth of 0-30cm, and were used for the determination of the selected soil quality. The treatments were replicated five times and data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance for complete randomized (CRD).  All the soil properties assessed were significantly different (p<0.05) among the study locations. The results further showed that apart from sand, BD, gravimetric moisture that were higher in control, silt, clay and porosity were recorded highest mean values than control. Mean pH in floodplains recorded mean  value of 5.9 being acidic than control with the mean of  pH5.38. Also apart from  Avail.P(38.50ppm),OC(1.89cmol/kg), Nitrogen (0.15cmol/kg), ECEC(18.16%) and BS(89.65%) being higher in control than floodplains, the mean of OM (2.5cmol/kg), Ca (10.5cmol/kg), Mg(4.7cmol/kg),K(0.14cmol/kg), Na(1.06cmol/kg) and EA(2.07) were higher in floodplains than control, which could  support farming during flood cessation for increased food productions. Based on the results, it is recommended that flood best management practice should be encouraged in order to retain soil nutrients, reduce soil and  water pollutions for ecosystem sustainability.

Keywords: Agro, Ecological Zone, Ecosystem sustainability, Flood, Soil Quality

The Impact of Flooding On the Livelihood of People Living In the Luhonono Area in the Zambezi Region, Namibia (Published)

This study examined the impact of floods on the livelihoods of the community of the Luhonono area (formally called Schuckmansburg) in the Kabbe constituency in the Zambezi Region of Namibia. The problem identified is the persistent flooding in the Luhonono area, giving rise to the need to look at the impact of floods on the livelihoods of the local community. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches, utilising both descriptive and exploratory designs. The target population for the study was all the heads of households, community leaders and a political councillor of government in Luhonono area. The study applied both purposive sampling and simple random sampling techniques. Structured questionnaires and an interview guide were used as research instruments to collect data from the sample. The data was used to measure the impact of floods on the livelihood of the people in the flood-prone area. The data collected were computed using the Excel computer program version 16.0 and the data were analysed by both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Chi Square tests were carried out to determine the association of villages and the severity of the flooding to the respondents. Hypotheses to test this association were examined using the Chi Square method. It was established that there is no association between the villages and the overall severity of the floods in the Luhonono area. This implies that all the villages were equally affected by the flood. There is a need for further studies to develop baseline data on the impact of flood that will help the Government of the Republic of Namibia in establishing strategies that will help the communities in flood prone areas to develop resilience against the impact of floods. 

Keywords: Disaster, Flood, Hazard, Preparedness, Resilience, Vulnerability

Irony as Narrative Tool in Uwem Akpan’s Say You’re One of Them and Wale Okediran’s After the Flood: A Comparative Approach (Published)

The study decries violence in all its ramifications including that perpetrated by nature and its elements, or that inflicted on one another by the characters in the works, or that unleashed on the audience by the authors who appear to be insensitive to readers’ psychology in the fictionalization of violence. It argues that the relationship between art and reality is not imitation which argument the Baroque model sustains, but distortion. And the failure to realize this robs art of its intrinsic value and presents nearly one to one correspondence. The study is somewhat hypothetical and somewhat theoretical in its espousal of the technique of irony, stating that the two works in analysis are shrouded in ironies. It postures that irony has both literary and social functions. The literary function is demonstrated in open contrasting and antithetical phenomena, whereas the social function is manifest in social criticism in which it uses other devices, especially satire to accomplish. In the course of performing this second function, the study shows that the authors have deployed irony in these works to reveal hypocrisy in religious/ethnic ideologies, corruption and quackery, ignorance and primitiveness.

Keywords: Baroque, Distorts, Flood, Hypocrisy, Imitates, Quackery, Religious and Ethnic Violence, irony

Flood Disaster: An Empirical Survey of Causative Factors and Preventive Measures in Kaduna, Nigeria (Published)

Flood is a water induced disaster that leads to temporary overflow of dry land and causes serious damage on lives, property, and infrastructures. Flood has created a lot of damaging effect in Nigeria, resulting to the death of people, collapse of buildings, destruction of properties, damage of agricultural produce, loss of land and increased government expenditure. Despite persistent occurrence of this disaster, there is limited research geared at studying the factors that cause flooding and measures to effectively control it. To fill this gap, a random survey was conducted on 40 households, community leaders and agencies responsible for the management of flood in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Relative Important Index (RII) was employed for ranking the factors and the preventive measures. From the result, the common factors that cause flooding were poorly constructed drainage, heavy rainfall and improper waste disposal. Preventive measures for flooding were proper dumping of refuse, awareness of the public on the need to adhere to environmental rules, empowerment of government agencies to monitor residential building construction, implementation of government policies on flood and sanitization of town/city planners. Increased awareness at all levels (community, local, state and federal) of the risk of flooding, appropriate response techniques in mitigating flooding via implementation of flood control policies and flood early warning system to control flooding in Nigeria were also recommended.

Keywords: Causative factors, Disaster, Environmental hazard, Flood, Preventive measures.


HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis software) is a one-dimensional computer program that models the hydraulics of water flow through natural rivers and other channels [1]. It was used to modify the existing culverts on River Omi which in the past years and of recent has inundated its surroundings. The hydrological data was also measured and used as an input to the model. The model was used over MIKE11, flovial and other hydraulic mathematical model because of its high visual capability and complete output with detailed [2].
The results showed and confirmed that the existing culverts at the considered cross-sections could no longer accommodate the river’s discharge. A box-culvert spanning 7.2m with a rise of 1.8m will be adequate and economical to replace the existing ones. The existing wing wall was sufficient for the modified cross-section.

Keywords: Culverts, Flood, HEC-RAS, Modeling, River Omi