Profitability and Marketing Efficiency of Smoked Fish: An Empirical Evidence from Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)
The level of efficiency and profitability of the market and marketing functions are very important for sustainable marketing of agricultural products like fish. To ensure continuous availability of fish for human consumption, nutrition, and wellbeing, the Nigerian economy requires effective and efficient marketing systems. Fish marketing serves as a medium for bridging the gap between producers and consumers of fish. The study considers 80 fish marketers from Ondo state using purposive sampling technique. The data collected for the study were analysed using budgetary technique and shepherd efficiency model. The study revealed that fish marketing is profitable with gross margin of #38,101.36 and 15k as return on investment. The shepherd efficiency model revealed that fish marketing activities among fish marketers is highly efficient with efficiency value far higher (558.0%) than 100% deducing that an increase in the cost of performing marketing service (that is added time, form and place utility) by 100 percent will give a more than proportionate increase of 458.0 percent in the level of satisfaction derived from a kilogram of fish sold in the market. It was recommended that government should focus on policy that encourages farmers and young graduates in the business as it is noted for profitability, efficiency and a source of livelihood.
Fish smoking is an activity that is commonly employed by fish farmers and entrepreneurs to preserve fish products. However, the method employed by fish farmers mostly is unhygienic and laborious. NCAM had produced charcoal fired fish smoking kilns to address this bottleneck. However, the heat loss became a source of worry, coupled with the increasing cost and non-availability of charcoal to fuel the fish kiln. This paper looked at the heat preservation in the smoking chamber and went ahead to lag the upper part of the chamber with the primary aim of conserving the heat thus reducing the quantity of charcoal utilized. Comparative performance evaluation was carried out between the fully lagged and the partially lagged charcoal fired smoking kilns. Results indicated that the fully lagged had a better overall efficiency than the partially lagged. The fully lagged generated an average temperature of 63oC over 31 hours while the partially lagged generated an average temperature of 59oC over 43 hours for the two kilns to effectively smoke catfish from 65% to 4% fish moisture content.
Application of Modified-Quechers Method to Fish Tissues for the Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides by Gas Chromatography, With Optimisation Using 14c-Lindane and 14c-Ddt (Published)
In this study, Ethyl acetate modified-QuEChERS method has been applied to fish matrix for the determination of recommended target organochlorine pesticides by keeping in view the importance of fish as food and an important indicator of sediment contamination and water quality problems. Fish and shell-fish monitoring facilitate effective risk management practices for responsible agencies and competent authorities by determining levels of contaminants that may be harmful to human consumers. A simple, rapid and inexpensive method has been proposed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in fish tissues. The method has been adapted from a previously validated method in IAEA laboratories, for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using ethyl acetate extraction, dispersive solid phase clean-up and gas chromatographic analysis with ECD and NPD detection. The method has been validated on fish fillets at fortification levels 10, 100 and 1000 μg/kg levels, far below the Codex permissible limits in fish tissue. Average recovery obtained for all 12-pesticides at three fortification levels is 90% with relative standard deviation of 8% (n=479). Two radiolabelled compounds, 14C-lindane and 14C-DDT, were used in the initial stages of method optimization and characterization. Limits of detection (LOD) were less than 3 μg/kg for all analytes except dieldrin, which had a LOD of about 5 μg/kg. The method offered is proven to provide efficient recoveries and most sensitive detection limits.
Utilization of Low Cost Technology: A Catalyst for Reducing Postharvest Fish Losses in Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)
The need for the development of fish preservation and processing machinery and techniques for effective fish handling, harvesting, processing and storage can never be over-emphasized especially now that aquaculture production is on the increase in Nigeria. With Low Cost Technology (LCT), and better processing practices, fresh fish can be processed as desired without any significant loss of its quality. Hence, this study assessed utilization of low cost technology: a catalyst for reducing postharvest fish losses in Lagos State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 353 fish processors as sample size for this study. Data obtained were analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Result of the study showed that majority (63.7%) of the respondents were between 31 – 50 years of age, predominantly female (93.8%), married (70.3%), had formal education (77.9%) and belonged to Fish Processors Association (74.2%). The average household size and experience in fish processing were 7 people and 19.2 years respectively. Estimated income from processed fish ranged from ₦20,000 – 40,000/week. Result also revealed that extended drum oven (90.9%) was predominant and often used by the respondents. However, red clay oven (58.6%), brick kiln (52.4%) and government model kiln (41.1%) are available but not used by the respondents. Respondents got training and capacity building on fish processing technique and preservation (83.0%), hazard prevention and safety training (79.0%), record keeping (71.4%) and quality fish sourcing (67.7%) mainly through their Fish Processors Association. Furthermore, major challenges undermining fish processing and utilization of LCT are lack of fund from the commercial banks (80.3%), poor road network (79.0%), lack of training by extension personnel (74.2%) and epileptic power supply (77.9%). In addition, result of chi-square indicated that significant relationship existed between socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and utilization of low cost technology (χ2 = 12.91, p < 0.05). Fish Processors Association (χ2 = 16.05, p < 0.05). Training and capacity building have significant association with utilization of low cost technology (χ2 = 13.79, p < 0.05). Constraints impeded the utilization of LCT and was positively significant (t = 2.87, p = 0.004). The study concluded that despite the advantages of LCT in reducing PHL and increasing income from processed fish it was not utilized by the respondents in the study area. It was therefore recommended that there should be more awareness and enlightenment on merits of LCT by the extension officers, fish experts and media to facilitate its adoption and utilization among fish processors in the study area.
Preliminary Assessment of Some Heavy Metals Pollution Status of Lisikili River Water in Zambezi Region, Namibia (Published)
Good water quality is fundamental to human health and sustenance of aquatic ecosystems. The Lisikili river in Zambezi region, Namibia is a major perennial river which serves diverse economic purposes in the host community. However, it is now receiving pollution threat from effluents discharge and surface run-off from large agricultural lands. Eight (8) water samples were collected at 8 random points within a stretch of approximately 2km on each extremity and median parts of the river. Two major economic fish from the river, tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) and cat fish (Siluriformes) (8 samples of each) were collected using fish net at the points of water sampling. The samples were transported to analytical laboratory in ice boxes for processing and analyses for the levels of Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP: Perkin Elmer Optima 7000 DV). The results obtained showed wide mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the river water; iron recorded the highest level of 2.375 mg/l and arsenic (0.047 mg/l) recorded the lowest level. Apart from Zn (0.259 mg/l) and Cu (0.073 mg/l) with the present concentrations lower than their guideline permissible limits, the mean concentrations of the other heavy metals exceeded their maximum permissible guideline values for the protection of human and aquatic health. Based on the classification of metal pollution index (PI) for water, apart from Cu (PI = 0.03) and Zn (PI = 0.04); all the other heavy metals recorded pollution indices which suggest moderate to strong effect on the river water quality. In both the catfish and tilapia fish (wet weight whole sample), iron (4.926 mg/kg and 3.323 mg/kg) recorded the highest mean concentration while Cd (0.136 mg/kg and 0.078mg/kg) recorded the lowest level respectively. Generally, the present levels of the heavy metals were below their regulatory limits for the protection of human health. However, the fish’s bio-accumulation factors of the metals suggest that they have high potentials to bio-accumulate some of the heavy metals to high levels and this has adverse implication for human consumption. Because heavy metals are non-biodegradable and bio-accumulative in nature which therefore, make their presence in human foods even at very minute levels potential toxins, it is important to monitor their accumulations in the river and fish and advice precautionary measures to limit excessive human exposures to the heavy metals content.