Following the end of the Nigeria-Biafra war in 1970, crude oil exports became Nigeria’s major foreign exchange earner, and national politics became a struggle over who controls the country’s oil sources and revenues. For nearly thirty years, the military, dominated as it were, by Northern Nigerian officers, kept on tinkering with revenue allocation formulae to the advantage of the North and to the chagrin and dismay of the oil-bearing South. While the latter continued to agitate for a review of the existing lopsided federal structure through restructuring and devolution of powers to enable them control the resources within their communities, the North persisted in its opposition to any change in the status quo. The result has been a lack of trust and acrimony in North-South relations. The paper adopted the qualitative research approach which basically involved content analysis. Among its findings was that the soured relations between the North and the South has impeded national integration, nation-building, and national development. It concluded that there is a compelling need to address the various issues associated with fiscal federalism, revenue allocation, and resource control through a restructuring of the Nigerian polity and economy.This will discourage the endemic and destructive struggle for the federal government between the political elite from both the North and South.
Fiscal Federalism, Resource Control, and Restructuring in Nigeria: The Contending Issues (Published)
The dynamism and complexity of Nigeria’s fiscal federalism have occupied the front burner of academic and political discourse since the return to democratic rule. The discussion on Nigeria’s fiscal practice became necessary because it has created several crises threatening the continued existence and continuity of the Nigerian state. The desertion of true federalism in Nigeria has led to the neglect and marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, where the country generates the bulk of its wealth through oil and gas exploration and exploitation. The Niger Delta region oil-producing states have been very vocal in their agitations for a fair share of the country’s wealth by the restructuring of the parameters for sharing and allocating the wealth of the nation located within their region. The agitations for resource control, it is believed, would make more resources available to the various states to ensure economic and social development. The protests have arisen for the reason that a more substantial portion of the nation’s wealth goes to the federal government at the detriment of the oil-producing states. The Nigerian federal government is yet to make any significant attempt to alter the status quo. No constitutional amendment is has been made to ensure the practice of true fiscal federalism in the country. This paper examined the debate and concept of fiscal federalism. It explores revenue allocation formula in Nigeria and the statutory role of revenue mobilization allocation and fiscal commission, the quest for resource control and Nigeria’s federalism, dimensions of resource control agitations by the Niger Delta region, and causes of the Niger Delta crisis. The paper concludes with some profound recommendations on the way forward.
An enquiry into the economies of such federations as the United States, Canada and Germany suggests that federalism is compatible with economic success. Such a proposition is, however, unsustainable considering the fact that India, Mexico and Nigeria, which are also federal states, have continuously performed poorly, reinforcing the view that a major explanation for the poor economic performance of the countries in the latter category lies in the manner in which their respective federal systems are operated. This paper therefore brings to the fore the nexus between Nigeria’s fiscal federalism and a lack of economic development in the oil-rich country. Our central argument is that Nigeria’s fiscal federalism has not spurred the desired development as envisaged by the architects of the system. The country’s over-dependence on oil, as well as the concentration of economic resources at the federal centre are at the heart of the country’s lack of economic success. Therefore, if Nigeria’s fiscal system is to achieve its economic objectives, the inherent contradiction manifesting in the over-centralisation of the federal system has to be addressed