The Impact of a Sustainable Competitive Advantage on a Firm’s Performance: Empirical Evidence From Coca-Cola Ghana Limited (Published)
Current organizations turn to many standard techniques to achieve competitive advantage, and if they are sustainable, then the organization benefits from the competitive advantage. As markets grow more saturated, only the organization with the highest sustainable competitive advantage will benefit the most. The primary objective of this study is to ascertain the impact of a sustainable competitive advantage on firm’s performance using evidence from Coca-Cola Ghana limited. The population included employees of Coca-Cola Ghana Limited in the four main regional capital cities and affiliated stakeholders. The data collected from 356 respondents were analyzed with Smart PLS statistical software. The results from the Structural Equation Model (SEM) revealed that sustainable competitive advantage is positively related to organizational performance. Resources and competitive environment have a moderating effect on firm’s strategy. It also established that resources and competitive environment are directly related to firm’s performance. Finally, it confirmed the relationship between human resource strategy and firm’s performance as positively related. The study concludes that the effects of the firm’s strategy, resources and competitive environment and human resource strategies on sustainable competitive advantage are undeniable and they have numerous impact on firms’ performance.
Personal Goals as an Antecedent to Firm Performance in Small and Medium Enterprises in Eldoret Municipality A Quantitative Analysis Approach (Published)
Small and Medium firms generated over half of gross domestic product and employment in all sectors. They are also a major source of innovation in creating new products technologies and services. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship of personal goals and performance of SMEs. The study adopted explanatory survey study design. A sample of 600 was drawn from a target population of 1200 SMEs in Eldoret Municipal Council, USANi Gish County using simple random technique. The study employed quantitative methods of data collection. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires and interview schedule. The data obtained were analyzed using inferential statistics like (ANOVA), Independent sample t test, Chi square, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression methods. The statistical methods were used to assess the relationship between the variable under study. From the study the variable was found to strongly influence performance of SMEs personal goals (r=-035, p>0.01) were positively correlated to the firm performance. The whole Cronchbah reliability was 0.935. From this study findings adjusted (R2 = .665) showed that all the predictors account for 66.5% variation for performance of SMEs. This study contributes to body of knowledge, theory development and further research in performance of SMEs.
The Influence of Entrepreneurial Innovativeness on Firm Performance among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Kenya (Published)
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the world economy. They contribute substantially to income, output and employment. They dominate the world business stage. Empirical studies have identified the effects of Market Orientation (MO) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on firm performance; also on the moderating effect of MO on single EO constructs, yet studies have failed to identify the influence of Entrepreneurial Innovativeness on the relationship between corporate entrepreneurship dimensions and firm performance, especially in Kenya. Therefore, based on a study conducted to determine the moderating effect of MO on this relationship among mid-sized enterprises in Kenya this paper examines the effect of entrepreneurial innovativeness on firm performance and the moderating effect of MO in the relationship between entrepreneurial innovativeness and firm performance. The study was guided by the Resource Based View (RBV), Contingency Theory, theories of entrepreneurship and the marketing concept. It adopted explanatory research design using a survey of all the top 600 med-sized firms in Kenya between 2006 and 2013. Actual participating firms were 536 with responses obtained from 394 firms. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s bivariate correlation, multiple regression, and moderated regression analysis. Results revealed that entrepreneurial innovativeness has a direct positive relationship with performance of mid-sized firms. In addition, market orientation had no significant moderating effect on the relationship between entrepreneurial innovativeness and firm performance. From these results, the study recommends that firms should intensify initiatives to encourage better understanding of EO and MO in boosting firms’ competitive positions and superior performance.
Supply chain flexibility is widely seen as one major response to the increasing uncertainty and competition in the marketplace. That is to say a firm with a flexible supply chain is likely to survive and grow its market share. Despite several evidences suggesting that performance improvements are related to SCM, managing supply chains today and practicing flexibility has become more difficult due to the fact that business environments are highly competitive, businesses are going more global, dynamic, and customer‐driven. Therefore, this study assessed the path between supply chain flexibility and firm performance using supply chain agility as a moderating variable. A total of 77 manufacturing and service firms operating in the Kumasi metropolis were selected as sample. The sample was made up of key management staff as well as non-management operatives of the firms. Questionnaires was used as instrument for data collection. The findings revealed that SC Flexibility and SC Agility positively correlated firm performance (p<0.01/0.05). Additionally, moderating SC Agility on SC Flexibility, produced a positive effect, however the effect was insignificant and this implies that SC agility does not significantly moderate the positive impact the SC Flexibility has on firm performance. SC flexibility better predicts firm performance through SC Agility as a moderator and not moderator. Therefore, it is rather necessary to appreciate the individual roles that both SC Flexibility and SC Agility play to ensure value for customers and thereby contributing to firm performance and not necessarily moderating each other.
Effects of outsourcing of services on performance of manufacturing companies in eldoret and nandi hills, kenya (Published)
At the present, firms are increasingly using outsourcing of services to improve the firm’s effectiveness, productivity, profitability, quality of products, quality workforce. Private sector expenditure is substantial. Owing to the enormous amount of money involved and the fact that the money comes from the private stakeholders and business, thus, they demand accountability and efficiency. The general objective of this study was to examine the effects of outsourcing on organizational performance. Specific Objectives were to examine the effect of outsource financial activities and outsource human resource activities.The study was anchored by two theories, Resource-Based View Theory and Principal Agent Theory. Explanatory research design was utilized in this study. Data was collected from a sample of 81 respondents from the private sector manufacturing companies translating to a response rate of 90%. A likert scale type of questionnaire was used to solicit primary data. The data analysis methods used were descriptive and inferential statistics, utilizing a multiple regression analysis model. The study findings showed that outsourced HR activities has significant effects on firm performance. However, outsourced finance and accounts activities have no significant effect on firm performance. The study concludes that outsourcing HR functions may be the best pathway to cost savings especially if effective HR activities already do exists in the organization. There is therefore need for firms to recruit using recruitment bureaus since it attracts the most qualified, competent and talented employees, not to outsource financial activities.
The Extent to Which Individual and Organizational Factors Influence Performance of Enterprise Based Parastatals in Kenya (Published)
This paper sought to determine the extent to which individual and organizational social entrepreneurship factors influence the performance of enterprise based parastatals in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The study used 55 enterprise based parastatals with a population of 495 top managers. Using stratified and simple random methods, 432 respondents were randomly selected from amongst the 55 commercially oriented parastatals in Kenya. The respondents comprised of top managers and senior managers from the 55 parastatals. The questionnaire and key informant interview schedule were used to collect data. Secondary data were collected from financial and audited statements. Coefficients between individual and organizational factors and firm performance elements obtained from factor analysis were computed to explore possible strengths and direction of relationships. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted and this was used to make interpretations and conclusions. The study established a significant relationship between individual and firm /organizational factors and performance of enterprises based parastatals in Kenya. The study recommended that policies be formulated to regulate business in enterprise based parastatals in Kenya.
Influence of Organizational Resources and Environmental Social Entrepreneurship Factors on Performance of Enterprise Based Parastatals in Kenya (Published)
Social entrepreneurship (SE) factors are said to lead to higher sales, profits and increased productive employment of private sector enterprises in Kenya, Africa and the world in general. Despite these successes, little is known whether these factors have a relationship with the performance of commercially oriented parastatals. This study sought to determine how organizational resources and environmental factors affect the performance of enterprise based parastatals in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The study population consisted of 55 enterprise based parastatals with a population of 495 top managers. Using stratified and simple random sampling techniques, 432 respondents were selected from amongst the 55 commercially oriented parastatals in Kenya. A questionnaire and key informant interviews were used to collect data. Secondary data was collected from financial and audited statements. Coefficients between independent variables (firm resources and environmental factors) and (firm performance) elements obtained from factor analysis were computed to explore possible strengths and direction of relationships. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted and this was used to make interpretations and conclusions. The study established a significant relationship between organizational and environmental factors respectively with performance of enterprises based parastatals in Kenya. The study recommended that policies that integrate social entrepreneurship in enterprise based parastatals in Kenya should be formulated for the enterprises to achieve their intended objectives and for improved performance. The policies should ensure among others that prudent use of organizational resources and exploitation of environmental factors are integrated as core aspects of the management of the organizations.
The Impact of Corporate Governance on Firm Performance: Evidence from Bahrain Stock Exchange (Published)
Corporate governance is recognized as one of the most important implications to build a marketplace confidence and to attract positive investors in the organization specifically and the economy generally. Promoting good corporate governance standards considered to be very important in attracting investment capital, reducing risk and developing firms’ performance. The aim of this research was to examine the impact of corporate governance characteristics on firm performance in Bahrain Stock Exchange. Previous literature reviews presented in the study found that corporate governance are successful in improving firm’s performance. The study sample contained 42 Out of 48 Bahrain’s financial companies which are listed in Bahrain Stock Exchange during the period 2007-2011. The descriptive results indicated that our sample firms fulfill corporate governance variables about 61.2% for the entire period in the study. The empirical results indicate that performance measures such as Return on Assets and Return on Equity are significantly related to corporate governance in Bahrain. However, Earning Per share performance measure is not showing any significance impact related to corporate governance. Overall, this study found a positive influence of corporate governance mechanisms on performance for the entire firm in Bahrain Stock Exchange. Thus, it is recommended that further research be undertaken from different aspects: The effect of corporate governance variables and their impact on firm’s performance in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and the effect of Global Corporate Governance on performance during the current Global Financial Crisis.
EFFECTS OF OUTSOURCING OF SERVICES ON PERFORMANCE OF MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN ELDORET AND NANDI HILLS, KENYA (Published)
At the present, firms are increasingly using outsourcing of services to improve the firm’s effectiveness, productivity, profitability, quality of products, quality workforce. Private sector expenditure is substantial. Owing to the enormous amount of money involved and the fact that the money comes from the private stakeholders and business, thus, they demand accountability and efficiency. The general objective of this study was to examine the effects of outsourcing on organizational performance. Specific Objectives were; to examine the effect of outsource marketing activities, outsource technology and innovation activities. The study is anchored by two theories, Resource-Based View Theory and Principal Agent Theory. Explanatory research design was utilized in this study. Data was collected from a sample of 81 respondents from the private sector manufacturing companies translating to a response rate of 90%. A likert scale type of questionnaire was used to solicit primary data. The data analysis methods used were descriptive and inferential statistics, utilizing a multiple regression analysis model. The study findings showed that outsourced marketing activities have significant effect on performance of firm. Similarly, outsourced technology activities has significant effects on firm performance. The study concludes that outsourcing marketing allows firms to reduce costs and enhances their portfolio hence impacting positively on performance. They should outsource website design and maintenance services since it is cost effective. Also, firms should also outsource telephone maintenance services so as to spend less on wage. Firms should use external transport and logistics agencies for distribution of their products since it reduces on cost enormously and use advertising firms to market their products.
The objective of this research paper is to assess the relationship between the Return on Assets and Board Characteristics (Board independence, Board meeting, Board size, Board expertise, Company size and Company year of incorporation). The research consisted of examining companies listed on the Palestine Exchange with analysis undertaken through regression analysis. After studying the six variables, the researcher found the existence of only one relationship which was between the age of the organization/ year of incorporation and the company’s Return on Assets (ROA). This paper provides a greater insight to understanding corporate governance in Palestine. The approach, taken in this paper, will enable companies to assess the true relationship between the Return on Assets to Board independence, Board meeting, Board size, Board expertise, Company size and Company year of incorporation. It will enable them, also, to find ways of ensuring these factors become more relevant to the organization’s performance. Palestine is still a young country in relation to corporate governance and the outcome of this paper will enable companies to grow positively
AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF INTERNAL MARKET ORIENTATION ON FIRM PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN GHANA (Published)
This paper provides empirical evidence on the effect of internal market orientation on the performance of commercial banks in Ghana. We adopt a quantitative research approach to analyse the relationship between internal market orientation and firm performance. A sample size of 136 marketing and human resource personnel of 15 randomly selected commercial banks in Ghana is used. Pearson’s correlation test and ordinary least square regression are used in data analysis. A strong positive relationship between internal market orientation and firm performance is found, r (131) = .863, p < .05. Similarly, internal market orientation significantly predicts firm performance at 5% significance level (t = 19.37, p = .000), with a variation of 74.4% accounted by internal market orientation. This implies that the performance of commercial banks is not limited to external marketing activities. Based on this evidence, commercial banks are expected to improve the effectiveness of their internal marketing endeavours to better leverage external market opportunities