Capital Structure Composition and Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence From Quoted Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (Published)
This study investigates the effect of capital structure composition on the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. This study employs the ex post facto research design, and data were obtained for the selected deposit money banks from factbook covering 2009-2018 financial year. Data estimation was done using the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) techniques. Descriptive statistic, correlation, and time-series regression analysis were further conducted. Some residual diagnostic test and model selection criteria were employed to ascertain the good fit of the model using E-views 9 econometric package. Findings from the empirical analysis show that debt-equity ratio, debt-capital employed ratio, and equity-capital employed ratio have significant and positive correlation with return on total assets which is the surrogate for firm performance for the study period. The study recommends that in the face of trade-off in capital structure decision, DMBs should have an optimal mix of capital structure, and should also monitor the dynamics and level of leverage that could eliminate the tax shield and reduce return on total assets.
Effect of Bond Issuance on Financial Performance of Firms listed on Nairobi Securities Exchange (Published)
The bonds market in Kenya has experienced tremendous growth in the recent past. Firms listed on Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE) have gone ahead to undertake secondary bond issues as they pursue their growth strategies. Looking at the financial performance (Return on Equity) of these firms that have undertaken secondary bond issues, there are declines at particular periods after these issues. Understanding the effect of bond issues on financial performance is important for the survival of firms. Studies on the relationship between debt and financial performance of firms have shown that debt has an effect on financial performance. This study went further to find out the effect of debt in form of bond issuances on listed firm financial performance as measured by return on equity. The study collected dated from all the six firms that had issued bonds in tranches or additional bonds within the period 2008 to 2017. Data was analyzed via regression to assess whether bonds issuance has any effect on the financial performance of firms listed on NSE. Results indicate that about 75.4 percent of variance in financial performance could be explained by bond issuance as characterized by bond price, bonds coupon rate, bond proportion, and bond yield to maturity. Bond proportion and bond yield to maturity were found to have a statistically significant effect on financial performance. The study concluded that bond issues affected financial performance of listed firms in Kenya. It was recommended that the listed firms ought to take into consideration the various aspects of bond issues in order to enhance their financial performance.
Influence of Micro-Finance Non-Financial Services on Financial Performance of Small Enterprises in Kenya (Published)
Small Enterprises are now recognized globally as drivers of economic growth and development and it is agreed that the microfinance sector is a major backbone in the sustenance and survival of small enterprises. The study employed descriptive research design. A sample of 67 respondents was picked through stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaires through self-administration were used to collect data. Inferential data analysis was done. All the three null hypotheses were rejected. The results of the study indicated that record keeping on its own explained 22.4% of variability of financial performance of small enterprises in Kenya whereas credit management advisory and budgeting and control explained 35.7% and 22.9% respectively. The joint independent variables together explained 70.1% of the variability of financial performance. The study concluded that there is indeed a significant influence of record keeping, credit management advisory and budgeting and control on financial performance of small enterprises in Kenya. However, there are other factors that explain the variability of the financial performance in small businesses in Kenya that were not included in the model.
Ownership Structure, Bank Stability and the Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in South Sudan (Published)
Since independence in 2011 the Republic of South Sudan has witnessed growth in the financial systems and the overall economy. This has led to growth in the number of the financial institutions in the country. Central to this growth pattern are commercial banks both domestic and foreign-owned. However despite their presence within the country for the last half-decade there has been scant literature examining their stability in the face of the numerous internal factors and economic shocks. Hence the current research sought to determine the effect of ownership structure, bank stability and the financial performance of commercial banks in South Sudan. The study was primarily grounded on the CAMEL model and theory of the firm. The study further adopted the positivism philosophy which guided the research. The research employed a descriptive research design. The population for the study was all the 29 commercial banks in south Sudan from which the research targeted one senior manager. The research relied on a mixed methodology which encompassed both quantitative and qualitative data. Secondary data was collected for the period 2012-2017 from audited annual financial reports of individual banks and from the Central Bank of South Sudan reports while primary data was collected by use of a semi-structured questionnaire. The collected data was edited, sorted and coded into SPSS 23 for subsequent data analysis using SPSS 23 statistical analysis tool. The research utilized both descriptive and inferential statistical methods in the analysis. The statistical tests to be utilized in the study included t-tests, f-test, regression models and ANOVA models. The findings of the research were presented using frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviation, correlation coefficients, charts, tables and other statistical measures. The results of the study indicated there was a statistically significant moderating effect of ownership structure on the financial performance of commercial banks in South Sudan. The study recommends that the government should adopt better measures to safeguard public owned commercial banks to improve their efficiency and performance.
Faithful Representation of Accounting Information and Financial Performance of Quoted Banks in Nigeria (Published)
The study examined faithful representation of accounting information and financial performance of quoted banks in Nigeria using secondary data obtained from Nigeria stock exchange spanning from 2007 to 2016. Price to earnings ratio- PER and Earnings yield-ENY were selected as financial performance proxies while absolute discretionary accruals (ABSDA) was used as a measure of faithful representation of accounting information. ABSDA was subjected to Hausman test and also regressed against performance variable. Findings indicate that ABSDA is negatively correlated with PER but positively correlated with ENY. The study also confirmed a significant negative effect of ABSDA on PER and ENY implying that the more intense the practice of accounting information manipulation through the use of absolute discretionary accruals is, the greater the adverse effects on price earnings ratio and earnings yield. This is because it introduces bias which hurts the neutrality of accounting information (SFAC 8, 2010). We recommend that regulators should increase scrutiny or constraints over accounting discretion and flexibilities allowed by accounting standard to curtail distortions by financial statement preparers in order to eliminate earnings manipulation and achieve high level of faithful representation.
Environmental Responsibility Reporting and Financial Performance of Quoted Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria (Published)
This study examined the relationship between environmental responsibility reporting and financial performance of quoted oil and gas companies in Nigeria. The study used secondary data obtained from the annual reports of 13 oil and gas companies quoted on the floor of the Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE) for the years 2012- 2017. The study adopted the ordinary least square (OLS) regression method as the basic technique of data analysis. The study found significant positive relationship between financial performance and environmental responsibility reporting in the oil and gas sector of Nigeria. However, the findings of the study indicate that environmental responsibility reporting in Nigeria is still developing and that organizations operating in the oil and gas sector report very little information about the impact of their operations on the environment. This finding is not quite surprising as most multinational oil and gas companies are not quoted on the NSE, as such were not included in the study. The study recommended, amongst others, that the relevant authorities in the country formulate regulatory policies for the oil and gas sector organizations to abide by in order to include more information on environmental responsibility practices in their annual reports.
The Influence of Mergers and Acquisitions on Financial Performance and Stock Return of Indonesian Banks (Published)
Business environment has changed rapidly due to dynamic changes in the current global era. Merger and acquisition activities are not a new phenomenon in the business world, and it’s an important business phenomenon. One of the changes that can be seen from the merger and acquisition activities are company’s financial performance and stock return. The purpose of this study is to analyze banks financial performance with financial ratios before and after mergers and acquisitions, analyze the effect of mergers and acquisitions on bank financial performance and analyze the factors that influence the success of mergers and acquisitions. This research used Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and Wilcoxon test and logistic regression. The results showed that ROA, OER, NPL, NIM and LDR improved after mergers and acquisitions. Mergers and acquisitions also affect the differences in ROA, OER, NPL, NIM, and LDR before and after mergers and acquisitions. Factors that affect the success of mergers and acquisitions are foreign ownership, acquisition percentage and firm size when viewed the success of merger and acquisition from bank’s ability to increase its net profit. In addition, when viewed from the stock returns obtained factors that affect the success of a merger and acquisition are foreign ownership, the percentage of acquisitions and industry relatedness.
In the recent past, a number of organisations across the world failed irrespective of internal controls. This has raised concerns about the relevance and influence of internal control, especially as it affects the financial performance of an organisation. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of internal control on financial performance of hospitality organisations (HOs) in Rivers State. The survey research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study was made up of all HOs operating in Rivers State. Convenience sampling technique was adopted in selecting twenty HOs that constitute the sample of this study. Data collection was done primarily using structured questionnaire and secondarily through journals, textbooks and the internet. The questionnaire was validated by senior academic and professional colleagues. The reliability index of the instrument was 0.765 obtained using the Cronbach Alpha technique. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics of percentages, means and standard deviations. Linear regression and correlation analysis were used in testing the hypotheses postulated. The investigation found that internal controls to a significant extent influence financial performance of HOs and that a positive relationship exist between internal control and financial performance of HOs in Rivers State. The study concluded that the control environment affects total revenue as such influences the financial performance of HOs, its non-existence or inadequacy may spell doom for an orgainsation. One of the recommendations made was that management of HOs should regularly upgrade their information and communication framework to enable them cope with the frequent changes in the global environment and as such improve their financial performance.
Corporate Board Size, Risk Management and Financial Performance of Listed Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (Published)
This study examined the effect of corporate board size, risk management on financial performance of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria for the period of 2011-2016. The population of the study is fifteen (15) listed deposit money banks in Nigeria out of which a sample of fourteen (14) were used for the study due to the accessibility and availability of data. Corporate board size and risk management as the independent variable was proxy with numbers of board of directors, liquidity risk, credit risk and operating risk, while the return on equity(ROE) and earnings per share (EPS) were used to proxy financial performance. Data were collected from secondary source through the annual report and account of the banks for the period under study and the data was analysed using multiple panel regression techniques. The findings reveal that board size, credit risk and operating risk are significant negative effect on return on equity (ROE) and earnings per share (EPS) respectively. The study also shows that liquidity risk is negative and insignificant effect on ROE and EPS of the study banks in Nigeria. It is recommended among others that the banks should regulate their risk management practices and ensure they minimize the non-performing loan as it has been found empirically to reduce the quality of the firm’s financial performance. They should also reduce their operational cost for better performance
The Influence of Financial Support Services on the Financial Performance of Women-Owned Enterprises in Eldoret, Kenya (Published)
Micro-credit services target low income clients who lack access to banking and related services. The study sought to establish the influence of micro-credit services on financial performance of women-owned enterprises in Eldoret. The financial performance measures were the net profit, current, inventory and times interest earned ratio. Based on the research, this paper discusses the influence of financial support services on the financial performance of women-owned enterprises which are funded through micro-credit. The study targeted a population of 1721 which constituted of women who owned enterprises and were registered with the county government of Uasin Gishu County. Study samples were drawn through purposive random sampling. A sample size of 313 was obtained using the Krejcie and Morgan formula. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present and analyse the data obtained. Data was then presented in form of tables, and explanations provided. There results showed that there was no significant influence of financial support services on financial performance of women-owned enterprise (p=0.00). From the study, it was observed that the financial performance of the women-owned enterprises in Eldoret improved due to the increase in the net profit, current, inventory turnover and times interest earned ratio. The study concluded that multiple loan products and favourable loan terms helps boost the financial performance of women owned enterprise. The study recommended that microfinance institutions should restructure the collateral and interest requirements by the women entrepreneurs by using credit scoring and business history as alternatives to asset-based security. This paper underscores the need to carry out more research on factors affecting women-owned enterprise in other areas of similar socio-economic patterns to ascertain whether or not financial support services have had a positive impact on the financial performance of women-owned enterprises. Moreover, a study should be conducted on the influence of micro-finance lending on financial performance of women-owned enterprises in Eldoret town.
The Influence of Capital Adequacy Ratio on the Financial Performance of Second-Tier Commercial Banks in Kenya (Published)
Performance of most mid-tier commercial banks in Kenya has been fluctuating over the past few years. Meanwhile, some of them continue to post impressive results as majority report losses and others merge in order to remain sustainable. This situation points to financial performance affecting the mid-tier commercial banks in Kenya. The government, through the Central Bank of Kenya, introduced prudential regulations aimed at bringing sanity in the banking industry. This move led to closure of Dubai Bank and Imperial Bank while Chase Bank went under statutory management awaiting new investors. From this, an investigation was done on how Central Bank regulations influenced financial performance of second-tier commercial banks in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper explores how capital adequacy ratio influences financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study was purely quantitative research and, therefore, correlation research design and descriptive research designs were used. The study was conducted in 14 second tier commercial banks in Kenya. It collected financial data from 2013 to 2016, considering that the regulations came into effect in 2013 from CBK and commercial banks websites. The data was sourced from Central Bank of Kenya after getting permission and approval from National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI). Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Multiple Regression Analysis was used to test the study research hypothesis. Findings were presented through tabulations and graphical illustrations. Computed correlation showed that capital adequacy ratio had significant strong positive relationship (p<0.05) with financial performance of mid-tier commercial banks. In conclusion, it was found that capital adequacy ratio is among the main predictors of mid-tier commercial banks’ financial performance. It was therefore recommended that CBK needs to regularly monitor commercial banks by ensuring that they publish their quarterly results to the public. The investment regulators in the country such as the Capital Markets Authority (CMA), Kenya Banker Association (KBA) and Central bank of Kenya can use these study findings to understand the bottom line impact of bank regulatory requirements and in understanding banks decision on to its customers.
The Relationship of the Capital Structure and Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence of Listed Banks in Thailand (Published)
This paper aims to determine the relationship between capital structure and banks’ performance in Thailand. We utilize the quarterly data set containing firm-specific characteristics and profitability from 1997 to 2016. By employing the random effect model and robustness check to tackle the endogeneity problem, the result proves that capital structure is significant and negatively correlated with profitability which implies that pecking order theory is valid in data set used. Moreover, credit risk and liquidity risk significantly decrease the financial performance. Based on the result and the theoretical background, this paper would like to suggest that governments and banks should focus on controlling the credit process to reduce the non-performing loans. Moreover, they should pay attention to the fund allocation to avoid the shortage of funding which may be costly to banks. Also, while improving banks’ financial performance, banks’ managers should be aware of over utilizing debt which reduces banks’ profitability.
This paper appraised the effect of intellectual capital on financial performance of firms in Nigeria using the banking industry. The research used the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC) to ascertain the extent that intellectual capital indices affect financial performance of three Nigeria. Data were collected from the published annual financial statements of the three banks and analyzed using regression tool. The study indicates that IC has a positive and significant effect on banks’ financial performances of the banks but some are not significant. The results further showed that the banks are statistically different in both the intellectual capital and its financial performance indicators. It also shows that the banks with high IC also show high financial performance. The study recommends banks in Nigeria invest vigorously in development of their human capital as a key driver of firm’s performance. They should also provide the infrastructures needed for to achieve a virile human capital in the system.
Capital Structure Impact on Financial Performance of Sharia and Non-Sharia Complaint Companies of Pakistan Stock Exchange (Published)
For a firm to be profitable, it is necessary to create an optimal capital structure that contribute towards desired performance level. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between capital structure and financial performance of firms specifically with respect to shariah complaint and non shariah complaint companies. The analysis was conducted on panel data of 8 companies (3 shariah complaint and 5 non shariah complaint) listed under technology and communication sector of Pakistan Stock Exchange under the period 2009-2015. Financial Performance was the dependent variable measured by ROA and ROE while capital structure was independent variable measured by indicators, LTDR, STDR, SGR, NDTS and INSHOL. Multiple linear regression and correlation were used as statistical tools to run the model. On the basis key findings we concluded in Pakistan Shariah and non shariah companies have different pattrens of capital structure. We further concluded that capital structure effect the performance of firm in case of non-shariah but do not significantly affect performance of shariah complaint.
Effect of Sustainability Accounting and Reporting on Financial Performance of Firms in Nigeria Brewery Sector (Published)
This paper evaluates the effect of sustainability accounting on the financial performance of listed manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Firms used for the study were chosen from the Nigerian brewery sector. Data were sourced from the financial statements of three sampled firms. Data were analysed using the ordinary linear regression. The study reveals that sustainability reporting has positive and significant effect on financial performance of firms studied. Following the findings, the study recommends that firms in Nigeria should invest reasonable amount of their earnings on sustainability activities while specific accounting templates be articulated by professional accounting regulating bodies to guide firms’ reportage on sustainability activities. The Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRC) and others alike should make sustainability reporting compulsory while adequate sanctions are spelt out and enforced on defaulting organizations to serve as a deterrent
Impact of Working Capital Management on Firm’s Profitability: A Case from Food Sector of Pakistan (Published)
The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between working capital management (WCM) and firm’s profitability in the Food sector of Pakistan. WCM plays an important role in firm’s financial management decisions. An optimal (WCM) is expected to contribute positively to the creation of firm’s value and enhancement of its profitability. Return on assets (ROA) is used as dependent variable while different independent variables are also used. Working capital, current asset to total asset ratios’ debt to equity ratio, current ratio and capital size of the firm are used independent variables. These variables are also used to investigate their effect on profitability (net income). A sample size of 5 major food companies in Pakistan has been selected from balance sheet analysis of state bank of Pakistan for a period of five years, from 2012 to 2016. The relationship between (WCM) efficiency and profitability is examined using correlation, regression analyses. The results show a strong positive significant relationship between (WCM) and firm’s profitability in Pakistan’s Food sector.
The purpose of this study is an attempt to explain the test empirically, social performance and environmental performance to financial performance (relevant, accurate, timely and complete) to develop a theoretical framework as the basis for the hypothesis as an answer to the research question, namely, the extent to which mamana: ( 1) the effects of social performance against the financial performance, (2) the effect on the environment performance to financial performance. Corporate social responsibility or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an idea that makes the company no longer faced with the responsibility that rests on a single bottom line is the value of the company is reflected in its financial condition, but the responsibility of the company should be based on the triple bottom lines which also pay attention to the dimensions of economic, social and environment that will guarantee the value of the company to grow in a sustainable manner.
Effect of Credit Management on Performance of Commercial Banks in Rwanda (A Case Study of Equity Bank Rwanda Ltd) (Published)
Credit management is one of the most important activities in any company and cannot be overlooked by any economic enterprise engaged in credit irrespective of its business nature. Sound credit management is a prerequisite for a financial institution’s stability and continuing profitability, while deteriorating credit quality is the most frequent cause of poor financial performance and condition. As with any financial institution, the biggest risk in bank is lending money and not getting it back. The study sought to determine the effect of credit management on the financial performance of commercial banks in Rwanda. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population of study consisted of 57 employees of Equity bank in credit department. Entire population was used as the sample giving a sample size of size of 57 employees. Purposive sampling technique was used in sampling where the entire population was included in the study. Primary data was collected using questionnaires which were administered to the respondents by the researcher. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. The study found that client appraisal, credit risk control and collection policy had effect on financial performance of Equity bank. The study established that there was strong relationship between financial performance of Equity bank and client appraisal, credit risk control and collection policy. The study established that client appraisal, credit risk control and collection policy significantly influence financial performance of Equity bank. Collection policy was found to have a higher effect on financial performance and that a stringent policy is more effective in debt recovery than a lenient policy. The study recommends that Equity bank should enhance their collection policy by adapting a more stringent policy to a lenient policy for effective debt recovery.
Ethical Marketing Practice: A Foundational and Fundamental Virtue for Corporate Reputation/Financial Performance (Published)
The social and economic justification for the existence and survival of a business corporate entity is its ability to satisfy its customers through its products and services. A company meets its basic responsibility to society through its products and ethical marketing practices. A company cannot successfully sell low quality products, coupled with other sharp and corrupt practices over the long run. The dignity of the marketer must be sustained and maintained. The minimum standard, culture and value system acceptable to the public must be projected. This study is on ethical marketing practice, as a fundamental and foundational virtue for corporate reputation and financial performance. Eight pharmaceutical companies from Edo and Delta States were sampled, using a sample size of 245 staff. The multiple regression statistical technique was used to determine the extent to which standard products and services, honesty and integrity, fair prices and truthful advert predicts financial performance in a business organisation.
The Influence of Foreign Exchange Rate Fluctuations on the Financial Performance of Commercial Banks Listed At the Nairobi Securities Exchange (Published)
A foreign exchange rate is the price at which one currency may be converted into another. An exchange rate is an important aspect in a nation’s international trade, balance of payments and overall economic performance. This paper is based on a study that sought to understand the relationship and effects of foreign exchange liberalization on financial performance of commercial banks listed in Kenya’s Nairobi Securities Exchange. The study used a time series correlation research design with the target population being all commercial banks that are listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange between 2006 and 2013. Data was sourced from the Central Bank of Kenya and published yearly accounts of listed banks. The study used multivariate Linear Regressions to establish the relationship between foreign exchange rate fluctuations, inflation rates, interest rates and bank performance indicators. Pearson product moment correlation (r) was applied to establish the relationship between the variables. The study found that there existed a strong positive relationship between foreign exchange rates and financial performance indicators. The positive relationship between exchange rate and financial performance may reflect how fluctuating and volatile exchange rate may have contributed to the growth of profitability of banks. The study recommends that the Government should put up more measures to increase the country’s exports.