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Characterization, Classification and Management of Some Soils in Ujam District of Makurdi, Benue State (Published)

An intensive soil survey was carried out in Ujam District, the two sites chosen were designated: (1) Tse-Tswam and (11) Tse-Ordam.  The aims were to characterize, classify and proffer management practices for the soils. At each site, three profiles pits were sunk and morphologically described. Samples collected from identified genetic horizons were subjected to analyses using standard analytical procedures. The soil profiles ranged from deep (118cm) to very deep (200cm); well to imperfectly drained; epipedons’ colour varied from very dark brown (7.5YR 2/3)/brownish black (7.5 YR 3/1) due to melanisation; subsoils were dull reddish brown (5YR4/4) due to rediomophism and brownish gray (10 YR 5/1) as imprint of gleization; Mottles on the subsoils may be attributed to drainage impedance; sandy loam or loamy sand surfaces with clay to sandy clay loam subsoils to sandstone parent material and weak fine crumb to moderate/strong fine-coarse subangular blocky structures. The soils had medium to high sand (41.20-83.00%), very low to medium clay (06.02.58- 43.25%) and low silt (10.65-16.96%) fractions; medium bulk density (1.19-1.38gmcm-3) and porosity (48.68-56.60%). Soil reaction was slightly acid (5.67-6.50); low organic carbon (1.05-0.30%), nitrogen (0.03-0.18%), Available phosphorus (3.00-10.10%) and EC (0.10-0.13dms-1). CEC was very low (6.34-9.10cmolkg-1) likewise CaCO3 (0.00-2.00%); medium to high base saturation (48.80-91.90%). All soil units (1-V1) possessed argillic horizons with base saturations that were ≤50%(NH4OAc at pH 7) and were classified into Alfisols at soil order level; units 1 and 111 further qualified into Eutric Epiaqualfs (Vertic luvisols Clayiec,kandic), 11 into Dystric Haplustalf (Dystric Luvisol Kandic, Clayiec) and 1V into Arenic Haplustalfs (Vertic Luvisols arenic, Dystric). Units V was placed into (Haplic Eutrustalf (Glayeic Luvisol Eutric,kandic) at subgroup while soil unit V1 was keyed into Glayiec Haplustalf (Glayeic Luvisol Kandic, Clayeic). Organic/mineral fertilizers incooporation into these soils will improve soil fertility, structure and water retention.

Keywords: Base saturation, Characterization, Classification, Management, argillic, fertilizers, haplustalfs, soil profiles, vertic epiaqualfs