Conventional plant breeding is the development or improvement of cultivars using conservative tools for manipulating plant genome within the natural genetic boundaries of the species which is aimed at producing plant that are superior in terms of quantity and quality than the pre-existing ones. However, the success of conventional plant breeding depends completely on the fertility status of the two parent plants involved in the hybridization program. Plantain and Banana are monoecious, sterile and parthenocarpic which leads to the production of fruit without seeds. The genetic breeding of plantain and Banana through hybridization is limited by the occurrence of sterility in most cultivars resulting in low production or absence of seeds. Studies are needed to better understand the processes involved in both fertility and sterility. Cultivated Musa species are seedless, Seed set after pollination is an indication of fertility of both male and female parents which can be used to develop hybrids of commercial varieties and wild relatives. The main objective of the present research which was investigated at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria to identify the fertility status of seven (7) USTPX plantain hybrids which includes USTPx/01/01, USTPx/01/02, USTPx/01/03, USTPx/01/05, USTPx/01/06, USTPX/01/07 and KM5 using in-situ method of screening for fertility. Different interspecific crosses were made. Result indicates that seven (7) species were fertile apart from USTPX/01/07 as they produced seeds after such different interspecific crosses. Out of the seven cultivars pollinated, six cultivars produced a total of 1748 seeds as female parents except from USTPx/01/07 which do not produce neither seeds nor pollen grains. Out of 1748 seeds, the highest numbers of seeds (1346 and 379 seeds) were obtained from USTPx/01/02 and USTPx/01/01 with a mean of 134.6 and 37.9 as female parents respectively in which USTPx/01/02 shows significant difference (P>0.05) from the other cultivars. The highest and the least number of seeds (1076, 412 and 2 seeds) were obtained using pollens from USTPx/01/01, USTPx/01/02 and USTPx/01/06 as male parents respectively
The Ganja-Gazakh zone is situated in the north foothill plain of the Little Caucasus mountain province from west Azerbaijan. It is one of the large vine-growing zones in the republic. A modern soil-ecological condition of the researches zone was studied from the references and as a result of the analysis of the private field-soil and laboratorial investigations. Qualitative evaluation of the soils was performed on the basis of the fertility indices of the under vine soils (humus, nitrogen, phosphorus a sum of absorbed bases) and a main bonitet scale was composed. At this time the dark mountain-grey-brown soils were taken as a standard soil (100 scores). The ecological factors that influence on vine land fertility were revealed and characterized, the main limiting factors of the vine-growing-slope height, erosion processes, land leaching, climate aridity, heavy granulometric structure and soil salinization have been determined in the Ganja-Gazakh zone. An ecological need of the vine culture was taken into account and the special evaluation scales were prepared according to the appearance degrees of the separate soil indications. The most vine land part of the zone is a foothill stripe, but ecologically fittest soils are dark mountain grey-brown (97 scores) and dark grey-brown (96 scores).