Tag Archives: Feminism

Women and Gender Equality in Chinese Law Today (Published)

The path towards equality of the sexes before the law has been a long road for China; one whose twists and turns have been sharp and crooked, and whose dips and crevices have been deep.  China has made great strides down this road, but there is much ground yet to cover.  Women in the world of Chinese law today are far better off than their counterparts a generation, or even a decade, ago; yet true gender equality has yet to be achieved.  This paper analyzes the status of women in the law in China.  It takes the form of a literature review of both Chinese and English language sources on the subject, drawing primarily from scholarly journals analyzing the subject going back as far as the late 1800s.  This paper looks primarily at the status of women in the legal academy and profession, but also delves into the world of civil (that is, family or domestic) law in China and the current situation of the average female litigant in disputes in this area.  In both instances, the status of women has been found to be disadvantaged in comparison to that of men.  The literature finds that the laconic state of women persists today largely due to entrenched cultural norms and perspectives regarding the role of women as subordinate to men, pressures resulting from a China that has and continues to undergo massive societal and economic transition, and uniquely also from modes and norms of communication and power-sharing (such as “guānxī” and “face”) that seem to disadvantage women socially.  These factors act as a countervailing force against more progressive trends that seek to build a more inclusive legal world for women in China, whether stemming from the rhetoric of the Communist Party or from the newer free market model which China has adopted.  Progress towards gender equality in the law in China has been substantial, but is still wanting.

Keywords: Divorce, Feminism, Law, Women

Education And The Assertive Woman: A Case Study of Ama Ata Aidoo’s Changes (Published)

The research looked at the relevance of the African educated woman in contemporary African society: A case of Ama Ata Aidoo’s Changes. The purpose of the study was to use Ama Ata Aidoo’s Changes to showcase the position of the African educated woman living in Africa. A qualitative approach was employed to look at views related to the indigenous African woman and her means of asserting herself through education and also adopted the traditional library research approach through the use of books, articles, journals and publications in as much as they contribute to the worth of the study.  It was informed by the Feminist, Womanist and the Stiwanist theories. The main findings of the study indicate that there have been positive changes in the roles of women over the years. This change has come about as a result of women’s quest to assert themselves through education and contribute towards freeing their families from cultural and societal dogmas in which women were treated to subjugation and marginalization. A remarkable observation was the intentionality of ascribing to female characters more respectable roles in novels by various writers as the years go by. A conclusion drawn from the study is that education is still a major weapon of enhancing assertiveness in women but it is not the ultimate.

Keywords: Educated Assertive Woman, Education, Feminism, Womanism and Stiwanism

Investigating Feminist Tendency in Margaret Atwood’s “The Handmaid’s Tale” In Terms of Sara Mills’ Model. A Feminist Stylistic Study (Published)

This paper purports to explore the relationship between linguistic structures and socially construed meanings in a narrative text. A stylistic analysis is conducted to unravel the design agilities of Margaret Atwood’s novel “The Handmaid’s Tale”. It tries to investigate her stylistic traits whereby much of the time her words seem to cloak or obscure what really happened. By adopting Sara Mill’s Model, the researcher attempts to reveal the ideology and power relations that underpin a literary text from different levels (according to the model) word, phrase, and discourse. The evidence seems to be strong that the model, however, has identifiable functions which contribute to the effective meaning of the novel. On this basis, it may be inferred that these elements trigger and play significant roles in passing the intention of the writer across.

Keywords: Feminism, Focalization, Fragmentation, Ideology, Stylistic Analysis, Stylistics

Fetus-Abortion: Is It Violating Human Rights (Published)

Abortion today is a burning issue. The question related to it was raised by Feminists – whether a woman has right over her body or not? A fetus is developed within the body of a woman hence the concept of abortion is related with the notion of feminism closely. It is moral to use if the life of the mother is in danger. But one can illegally use this medical process to abort only female child (female infanticide). Thus there is high chance to misuse this medical tool. However in this present dissertation I want to focus on the question of abortion from the point of view of human rights. 

Keywords: Abortion, Female Infanticide, Feminism, Fetus., Human Rights

Feminist Giants: Contributions to the Feminist Canon by Famous Selected Theorists (Published)

The paper explores the pivotal contribution made to the feminist canon by some famous Anglo-American, African-American and French theorists. In particular, the paper discusses the principal feminist arguments made by Virginia Woolf, Alice Walker, Simon De Beauvoir, Helen Cixous, and Elaine Showalter. Each theorist has significantly added to the agenda of the feminist discipline, and thus evidently contributed to the transformation the discipline has witnessed so far.  The paper highlights this contribution by investigating the major concepts and ideas proposed by those writers, and attempts to pinpoint similarities and differences among them, when applicable.

Keywords: Anglo-American, Feminism, Literary Criticism

“Hyena in Petticoat”: Wollstonecraft’s Peaceful Revolution in a Vindication of the Rights of Woman (Published)

This study aims at highlighting the peculiar feminist stand of the famous British feminist, Mary Wollstonecraft, in her well-renowned work, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. The paper shows that Wollstonecraft was shrewd enough not to go in direct attack against the strongly-established patriarchal edifice of her time. Unlike mainstream feminist discourse, Wollstonecraft peacefully called for empowering women without negatively affecting the status quo of man. More interestingly, Wollstonecraft does not put the blame on the patriarchal mentality as such. Rather, she addresses women themselves as they contribute to their own subjugation. She calls for a change within women themselves in order for them to achieve the societal transformation they desire.

Keywords: A Vindication, Feminism, Wollstonecraft

Feminism and the Rights of Muslim Women in Modern Legal Interpretations (Published)

The question of woman is one of the major areas of debate in most contemporary societies in Nigeria in particular and throughout the world in general. Social scientists, feminists and anthologists have tried to identify the essence of “woman” and how she differs from man if indeed, such difference exists. As a result, a variety of opinions regarding the “woman” and what determined her role in the society emerged. Furthermore the question of what is intrinsically Islamic with respect to ideas about woman and gender remains complicated by several clichés which have been confused with Islam, this has led to the belief that Islamic law is anti feminism in some or all of its forms. On the other hand, feminists’ discourses address basic issues of inequality in Islamic law and practice with the aim of attaining more equally balanced marital relationships, basic human rights and personal, civil and political rights. This paper attempts to examine a number of feminists’ issues on the above mentioned areas. It also shed light on the treatment of women by the Islamic legal system and in modern Muslim legal interpretations. Here a return to history is required looking at religious texts and high documents in a more critical and objective manner. The study finds out that Muslim women are subjugated to various forms of denials of rights because Islam has been abandoned in practice and misrepresented by some scholars. The study recommends that Muslim scholars both male and female should play the vital role of massive enlightenment campaigns to educate the people on the Shari’ah (Islamic law), its positive attitude towards gender equality and the right of all human beings.

Keywords: Feminism, Gender Equality, Legal Interpretation, Muslim Women

Investigating Feminist Tendency in Margaret Atwood’s “The Handmaid’s Tale” In Terms of Sara Mills’ Model. A Feminist Stylistic Study (Published)

This paper purports to explore the relationship between linguistic structures and socially construed meanings in a narrative text. A stylistic analysis is conducted to unravel the design agilities of Margaret Atwood’s novel “The Handmaid’s Tale”. It tries to investigate her stylistic traits whereby much of the time her words seem to cloak or obscure what really happened. By adopting Sara Mill’s Model, the researcher attempts to reveal the ideology and power relations that underpin a literary text from different levels (according to the model) word, phrase, and discourse. The evidence seems to be strong that the model, however, has identifiable functions which contribute to the effective meaning of the novel. On this basis, it may be inferred that these elements trigger and play significant roles in passing the intention of the writer across.

Keywords: Feminism, Focalization, Fragmentation, Ideology, Stylistic Analysis, Stylistics

Investigating Feminist Tendency in Margaret Atwood’s “The Handmaid’s Tale” In Terms of Sara Mills’ Model. A Feminist Stylistic Study (Published)

This paper purports to explore the relationship between linguistic structures and socially construed meanings in a narrative text. A stylistic analysis is conducted to unravel the design agilities of Margaret Atwood’s novel “The Handmaid’s Tale”. It tries to investigate her stylistic traits whereby much of the time her words seem to cloak or obscure what really happened. By adopting Sara Mill’s Model, the researcher attempts to reveal the ideology and power relations that underpin a literary text from different levels (according to the model) word, phrase, and discourse. The evidence seems to be strong that the model, however, has identifiable functions which contribute to the effective meaning of the novel. On this basis, it may be inferred that these elements trigger and play significant roles in passing the intention of the writer across.

Keywords: Feminism, Focalization, Fragmentation, Ideology, Stylistic Analysis, Stylistics

Representation of Female Characters as Extension of Male Characters: A Feministic Analysis of Sidhwa’s “The Pakistani Bride (Published)

This paper is an attempt to explore the issues of female status in society by Sidhwa, in her novel “The Pakistani Bride” (1983). It discusses the dilemma of females being treated as extension of males with special reference to Pakistani society. It aims to expose how patriarchal societies suppress and subjugate females physically, emotionally and socially. Sidhwa has quite appropriately shown Pakistani gender-based class structure. She talks about marginalized and double colonized Pakistani women and presents them as victim of patriarchal culture who faces different national and domestic issues and is expected to suppress her individuality in order to be in harmony with society and culture.

Keywords: Feminism, Patriarchy, Sidhwa, The Pakistani Bride, suppression

Portrayal of Socially Subjugated Indian Women in Desai’s “The Domestic Maid” (Published)

The specifics of this research include women’s relegated portrayal in Indian society. Showalter’s model of cultural feminism has been used to expose the subjugated Indian females. This perspective is taken as the foundation for the study which investigates that how the society in which female authors work and function shapes women’s goals, responses and point of view. This study means to investigate the role and contribution of patriarchy and patriarchal values towards the misery, suffering, loneliness and unhappiness of women. Further it emphasizes other psychological, social and economic problems experienced by them. In pursuance of the methodological design outlined above, the story has been scrutinized on feminine notion. This research refers to social and cultural milieu of Indian women and founds the bleak outlook of Indian women’s life.

Keywords: Cultural model, Feminine, Feminism, Patriarchal, Showalter

Issues of Cultural, Political and Racial Identity of Women in Rich’s Poetry: A Socio-Feministic Analysis (Published)

This paper aims to analyze the socio-feministic picture of a poet who has distinguished place in American literature for her contribution in the field of feminism. The feminist struggle against patriarchal set up has been found in Rich’s poetry with reference to the selected poems. In these poems women are not constantly under men’s power and supremacy; they want to struggle for their rights and make an improved life even when there is no man. Women revolt and escape as they are being oppressed and burdened by male oriented society. She is different from other American poets like Plath whose poetry revolves round her. This paper will helpful in understanding the background of her poems.

Keywords: Cultural, Feminism, Issues, Political, Racial, Rich, Social

GENDER DISCRIMINATION AGAINST PAKISTANI WOMEN IN “BOL”; A STUDY OF CLASH BETWEEN CULTURE AND RELIGION. (Published)

This paper aims to study the issue of gender discrimination against Pakistani women presented in a film Bol directed by Mansoor. Feminist theory is used as major theoretical framework for the present research. The discourse is analyzed through qualitative method and descriptive analysis. Kristeva’s feministic assumptions regarding ‘Gender Discrimination’ are implied in theoretical background. Her notion of abjection as an explanation for oppression and discrimination helps to shed light on the oppression and subordination of women and man chauvinism which is strictly prohibited in Islam. Moreover this paper will discuss about the psychological and sexual violence.

Keywords: Discrimination, Feminism, Islam, Violence, oppression.

A REVIEW OF THE STUDIES CONDUCTED ON FERDOWSI’S SHAHNAMEH WITH A FOCUS ON FEMINIST CRITICISM (Published)

Because of its historical significance and also due to the fact that it represents a part of the ancient Iranian national identity,it is important to study Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh. When Shahnameh is the subject of discussion, Iranian culture and history come to attention and since Shahnameh narrates ancient Iran events in an Islamic era, given the cultural indications in the book, it is expected to provide the reader with an image of Iranian woman in ancient times. By reviewing some of the studies which have investigated women in Shahnameh, the present paper seeks to find out whether this expectation has been fulfilled or not. It gives a brief summary of these studies and appraises them according to the theories of feminist criticism and shows the differences and similarities between these studies and theories. It was found out that most of the studies have made common conclusions and considered women’s image generally and biasedly. These studies pay little attention to the theories of feminist criticism.

Keywords: Feminism, Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, Literary Studies., Women

A Review of the Studies Conducted on Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh with a Focus on Feminist Criticism (Review Completed - Accepted)

Because of its historical significance and also due to the fact that it represents a part of the ancient Iranian national identity,it is important to study Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh. When Shahnameh is the subject of discussion, Iranian culture and history come to attention and since Shahnameh narrates ancient Iran events in an Islamic era, given the cultural indications in the book, it is expected to provide the reader with an image of Iranian woman in ancient times. By reviewing some of the studies which have investigated women in Shahnameh, the present paper seeks to find out whether this expectation has been fulfilled or not. It gives a brief summary of these studies and appraises them according to the theories of feminist criticism and shows the differences and similarities between these studies and theories. It was found out that most of the studies have made common conclusions and considered women’s image generally and biasedly. These studies pay little attention to the theories of feminist criticism

Keywords: Feminism, Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, Literary Studies., Women

A Glimpse to the Female – Oriented Criticism in Persian Literary Researches (Published)

Feminist critical view points and their related concepts have entered into the fields of different brunches of knowledge in recent decades. During this time, literary studies have been too fruitful in feminist theories. Since these subjects are studied in universities too, it seems to be necessary to review critically the works produced based on applying the feminist theories. To have any kind of critical approach towards the application of these theories in literary researches, first of all, we need a precise standpoint. In this article, we have a look at those literary researches done between 1932 to 2012 in which woman in any way is pivotal. We also study the kind and frequency of the concepts related to woman, repetitions and the areas not considered or neglected in the literary researches of the period. Moreover we have made use of diagrams and tables to provide a clearer picture of our analysis. Investigations of researches done reveal a clear pattern of growth for them. Female researchers have been more eager than their male counterparts to study the position of woman in Iranian literature. Statistics also reveals that in the field of Persian Classical literature most of the works done are related to Shahname. It also seems to be room for academic female- oriented researches on the Persian classical poets as Rabia Balkhi and Mahasti Ganjavi. Among the prose texts, HEZAR- O- YEK- SHAB sands at the peak for the number of researches have been done. In addition, female- oriented researches have received its most attention in novels and short stories. Simin Daneshvar, as the first Iranian female writer has done the largest number of researches of the field in question. In contemporary poem, it does not seem to be any especial scarcity of research since most of the poems of Iranian contemporary famous female poets are reviewed critically, with the poems of Parvin Etesami as the bridge between classical and contemporary poem stands at the peak

Keywords: Feminism, Literary Criticism, Literary Researches, Women

The Women of Osofisan: Beyound Fiction (Published)

Women in the African past, contrary to being domesticated were not only achievers in their own right but also pillars of society. A voyage into African and especially Nigerian history gives a picture of outstanding women who contributed to trade and governance in their various communities and societies. Moremi in pre-colonial Ife kingdom, the Aba Women, Funmilayo Ransome Kuti and the Egba Women during the colonial era not to mention other outstanding women in Yoruba and Hausa kingdoms such as Queen Amina, Madam Tinubu and Efunsetan Aniwura (Iyalode Ibadan) demonstrated that women are not mere domestic servants who should be suppressed, subjugated and thrown about. They too have a place in the society. In modern times, women are still performing such leadership roles and are depicted in such roles by writers, like Femi Osofisan, in their writings. In an interview session, Osofisan, a prolific, renowned and outstanding African writer, discusses his motives in creating the female characters in his works the way he does. He explains and analyses the roles he ascribes to women in his writings and how his female characters like Morountodun, Tegonni, Wura, Alhaja, the Women of Owu and others serve to project leadership roles, serve as innovators and societal consciences. He also comments on the impact and significance of these women characters in society and the conditions that would make it possible for women to achieve such outstanding roles in real life. This paper therefore, presents Osofisan’s women as conceived by the playwright himself.

Keywords: African Women, Agent of Change, Feminism, Gender, Women Empowerment