The Assessment of Weaver-birds’ Crop-raiding Activity in Buea Municipality, Southwest Region, Cameroon (Published)
The entire surface of the earth is visited by the birds in view of their aerial flights and variable habitats in search of suitable breeding and feeding grounds. Flight, intelligence, adaptability and sight are some of the attributes that add to the diversity in the life of birds, consequently there is complexity in their overall behavioral pattern. The key objective of this study was to assess the weaver-bird crop-raiding activity in Buea municipality on different environmental parameters. The study was undertaken for three months, six days in a week, from 7:00am to 6:00pm. Scan observations were made on birds’ activity on a five-minute interval period across the entire study area. Simultaneously, data was collected on the environmental conditions. The study recorded a significant association between weaver-bird activity on crop-land, X2 = 11.653 df=14, P < 0.005 and X2 = 3.441 df=4, P<0.05 respectively. There was weaver-bird activity frequency of 51.63%, 45.35%, and 3.02% for Ploceus luteolus, Ploceus cuculatus, and Ploceus melanocephalus respectively. Moreover, a week association between bird activity and weather, X2 = 3.125 df=3, P<0.05 was recorded. The sunny and cloudy weather conditions recorded 53.26%, and 42.09% respectively, while the windy and rainy weather conditions were significantly low (3.26%). An association was recored between atmospheric conditions and weaver-birds’ activity on crops, X2 = 23.249 df=21, P<0.05. In addition, the most destroyed farms were Elaeis guineensis (32.33%), Saccharum officinarum (19.77%), Zea mays (17.44%), and Mangifera indica (15.58%) respectively, and the scale of destruction was very prominent on the foliage used by the birds for nest-building. Maize crops and oil-palms were among the crop species most subjected to destruction by birds. These crops were observed with poor foliage formation and fruits, consequently they withered, and since the local farming population in this municipality predominantly cultivate these crops most, a heavy toll is often taken on the annual farmers’ income.
The aim of this review was to summarize the effect of high forage diets in relation heath promoting fatty acids. Fat content in the milk contributes mineral, vitamins, energy and essential fatty acids (C18:2n-6) and C18:3 n-3) to human. But, inclusion of high proportion milk and milk product especially, saturated fat in human diets is becoming questionable because of the health risk like obesity, cancer, diabetics, and cardiovascular disease. This creates negative altitude on consumers towards milk and milk product. Compromising the milk yield inclusion up to 70% of forage enhance n-3 PUFA and CLA (rumenic and vacinic acid). Studies in rat revealed that CLA (rumenic or vacenic acid) rich butter at 2% of its diet show reduction in mamary tumor and cholestrol indiuced coronary heart disease in rat. However, the contribution of the unsaturated fatty acid from milk to the total human diet is relatively low. Since for human to be effecteive it need reasonable to add 20% of its diet. Beside to this, the findings are still under animal model so further study is still needed to test its real effect on human health.
SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION PRACTICES IN AGRO FORESTRY SYSTEMS OF GEDIO ZONE, SNNPR, ETHIOPA (Published)
The study was conducted to describe sheep and goat production practices in three Agro-ecological Woredas of Gedio zone southern, Ethiopia. A set of semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 120 sheep and goat owners based on single-visit-interviews. 32.6% of them participate in crop production, 56.5% of them involved in both animal and crop production and 5% of them involved in crop production, animal production and off farm activity. Sheep flock in the study sites were significantly different; and 5.63 in wenago and 6.97 Walema sites and 3.4 kochera. Major feed resources were grazing (33.5%). The highest mortality rate occurred in suckling flock (16.24% lambs; 16.3 kids %), young flock (9.64 %lambs; 13.24% kids) and breeding females (ewes 12.06% and does 14.1%) in all study sites. Sheep and goat production in the studied areas was constrained by different problems; prioritized the major constraints as; availability and cost of feeds, limitation of land for the expansion of production and poor extension services. Integration of sheep and goat with other agricultural practices is the dominant systems in the area.
Nutritional Quality Assessment Of Ten Mulberry (Morus) Germplasm Varities Through Moulting Test, Silkworm Rearing Techniques And Economical Characters of Bivoltine Silkworms (Bombyx Mori L.) For Commercial Exploitation (Published)
Ten mulberry varieties viz., Tr8, Tr12, Tr20, S1708, MS5, Matigara black, C6, C10, Morus nigra and M5 were evaluated for leaf quality through rearing experiments using bivoltine (NB4D2) silkworms at Bethamangala, Kolar district. Results revealed that, silkworm larvae reared on S1708 leaves during II moult recorded highest larval weight (25.05mg) and moulting ratio (83.26%) and lowest larval weight (15.94mg) and moulting ratio (70.04%) recorded in silkworms reared on Morus nigra leaves. Silkworms reared on S1708 leaves recorded highest ten larval weight (43.21), cocoon weight (2.15g), shell weight (0.64g), shell percentage (20.96%), filament length (1142.69mts), renditta (5.07), denier (2.08) and E.R.R (79.98%) whereas lower ten larval weight (34.24g), cocoon weight (1.40g), shell weight (0.23g), shell percentage (15.12%), filament length (726.24mts), renditta (7.32), denier (2.98) and E.R.R (63.76%) were observed in Morus nigra mulberry variety. It is observed that, mulberry variety S1708 is superior in silkworm moulting and rearing tests compared to other varieties studied.