Formative Assessment in the Social Studies Classroom: How Senior High School (SHS) Teachers in Ghana Actualise It (Published)
Formative assessment of students’ learning is said to have a positive impact on students’ learning, and thus the call on teachers to employ this mode of assessment in their classroom practices. There is however little indication that teachers in Ghana have heeded to this call. This study therefore sought to examine the formative assessment practices of six Senior High School (SHS) Social Studies teachers; conveniently drawn from the Northern and Central regions of Ghana. The study adapted the ‘Formative Assessment Classroom Observation and Lesson Planning Tool’ (FACOLPT) for data collection. Data collected were thematically analysed. The study reveals that the assessment practices of these teachers are not in congruence with contemporary established practices. It is therefore being recommended that teachers are given enough pre-service and in-service training in formative assessment so as to increase their understanding of the concept and also help reorient their beliefs. It is believed that teachers, when adequately trained in this direction, will begin to see assessment more positively and use it not only to improve students’ performance but also to improve their own instructional practices.
Analysis of Senior High School Mathematics Teacher Characteristics and Utilization of Assessment Practices (Published)
The study sought to examine mathematics teacher characteristics that influence their use of assessment procedures in teaching and learning. The study adopted the descriptive survey design and the participants were 88 senior high school mathematics teachers sampled from the randomly selected schools from the Sunyani municipality. A four point Likert scale questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The internal consistencies of the various sections of the instrument ranged from 0.69 to 0.78. The data collected were analysed using the independent t-test and one-way of variance ANOVA. The results from the study showed that assessment practices were not influenced by teacher characteristics such as gender and years of teaching. It was however found that professionalism of the teacher and exposure to INSET on classroom assessment influenced the use of assessment in the classroom. The recommendations drawn are that teachers must be encouraged and supported to participate in in-service training which retrains them on the need to involve assessment practices in teaching and learning. It is also recommended that professional teachers must be recruited to teach all subjects especially mathematics.
Examining the Need for Effective Communication and Structures for Leadership in the Legislative Service (Published)
The legislature, irrespective of clime or political configuration, incontrovertibly plays a strategic role in the growth and consolidation of democracy. This explains why the political circle expects much from the legislature. Owing to the strategic role of this institution, this paper, among other things, reveals the place of effective communication and effective legislative service structure in Nigeria. Understandably, effective communication is at the centre of effective legislative service. Using descriptive research design, the paper concludes that effective communication is pivotal to a productive legislative system in Nigeria. Based on this, it is recommended that lawmakers should break down legislative information into essential units and keep the chain of information transmission short. Again, it is also recommended that a two way communication process that encourages feedback should be preferred in the place of linear communication.
Assessment of the Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal on Work Productivity: A Case Study of Kumasi Polytechnic (Published)
Performance appraisals allow the organization to tell the employee something about their rates of growth, their competencies, and their potentials. The absence of effective performance appraisal is a fundamental cause of low output of staff to work. This study outlines the benefits that can be derived from the use of the performance appraisal system if it is properly administered to workers on the campus of Kumasi Polytechnic. It was found out that performance appraisal influences performance positively. However, the researchers realized that performance appraisal is mostly undertaken on annual basis at the workplace. Again, it was also realized that Kumasi Polytechnic uses rating scale, descriptive system and management by objective system methods of appraisal to evaluate employees. It was also realized that management by objective is the mostly used method. Hence, it showed that appraisal is conducted annually in the institution. Finally, we realized from the research that performance appraisal has got much influence on job performance of Kumasi Polytechnic employees.
Comprehension is the ultimate goal of all reading; that is, the ability to understand a text underlies all reading tasks. Thus, main-idea comprehension should be at the core of all reading instruction. In most classes, comprehension is tested as the class reviews post-reading comprehension questions. Instead of testing comprehension, we can help our students by teaching comprehension. Simply put, reading comprehension is the act of understanding what you are reading. While the definition can be simply stated the act is not simple to teach, learn or practice. Reading comprehension is an intentional, active, interactive process that occurs before, during and after a person reads a particular piece of writing. Reading comprehension is one of the pillars of the act of reading. The use of effective comprehension strategies that provide specific instructions for developing and retaining comprehension skills, with intermittent feedback, has been found to improve reading comprehension across all ages.
A Comparative Study of the Teaching and Evaluation Processes in Sandwich Degree Programmes in Two Nigerian Universities (Published)
The training of teachers through the sandwich mode has been perceived by many as a medium for training teachers who cannot compete favourably in the labour market with those trained in the conventional universities. The reasons are attributed to some factors especially, the period stipulated for training in this program. It is against this background that this study compared the teaching and evaluation processes in sandwich B.Ed degree programs at University of Abuja ( Uniabuja) and University of Nigeria Nsukka ( UNN). A descriptive survey design was employed for the study. The population was made up of 560 and 676 final year students of Uniabuja and UNN respectively. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were employed to select a sample of 100 students from each university thereby making a total of200 students. A four-point likert- scale questionnaire was used for data collection. Research questions were analysed with means scores while t-test was used to test the hypotheses. Results of this study show that there was significant difference in the extent to which course contents are covered in both universities and the evaluation and feedback mechanisms were effective. The study inter alia suggests an increase in the staff strength of lecturers in Uniabuja to help in the reduction of workload for more program effectiveness
THE ROLE OF TEACHER CORRECTION FEEDBACK IN THE SUCCESS OF STUDENTS’ ERROR CORRECTION DURING REVISION AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BOTSWANA (Published)
Arguments have risen about whether teacher corrective feedback is necessary for students or not; in other words, does error correction benefit students? Feedback is one of the factors in Skinner’s operant conditioning model of learning closely tied to behaviourist learning theory. In this learning model, feedback is equated with positive or negative reinforcement. This paper sought to identify the role played by teacher correction feedback in the success of students in correcting errors during revision. The study is based on the hypothesis that there is a relationship between feedback mechanism applied to student errors and students’ success in correcting errors during revision. The study makes use of a longitudinal, quasi-experimental design. Two Form 4 classes from one private co-educational secondary school were used comprising 28 males and 40 females of ages 16 years to 21 years. The results reveal that students manage to correct most of the errors made in the original essays after reviewing the correction feedback by teachers in the long term.
Gender, Feedback with Remediation and Students’ Attitude towards Mathematics (Review Completed - Accepted)
The study investigated the effects of feedback and remediation as instructional strategies and gender on junior secondary school students’ attitude towards mathematics. The sample for the study consisted of 237 junior secondary two (JSS II) students in intact classes of three co–educational schools purposively selected from Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State. The study employed quasi–experimental design with treatment at three levels namely: Formative Test with Feedback and Remediation, Formative Test with Feedback only and Formative Test without feedback and remediation which served as control. The treatment levels were crossed with students’ gender (male and female). Four research instruments including three Mathematics Formative Tests I. II, III and Mathematics Attitude Scale (MAS) were constructed, validated, and used for the collection of all relevant data. The data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Scheffe’s Post–Hoc Analysis. Result from the study shows a significant effect of treatment on students’ attitude towards mathematics. However, there was no significant effect of gender on students’ attitude towards mathematics
Is Teaching Practice for Grading or Improvement? Examining Student teachers’ Perception and Experience at the University of Dar es salaam, Tanzania (Review Completed - Accepted)
Teaching practice is the central activity in testing teaching skills gathered in classroom learning and in preparing professional teachers in any country. The current study investigated student teachers perception and experience on the teaching practice supervisor’s treatment, student supervisor pre or post classroom discussion and teaching practice processes in general. The data to inform the study were collected from 112 student teachers: 67 were males and 45 females and the tools used were questionnaires both structured and non-structured. Of these 52 were second years while 60 were third years. Majority of respondents about 95(84.8) were pre service and 17 (15.2%) were in-service. The findings revealed that student teachers had positive perception on teaching practice exercise, teaching practice supervisor’s treatment, and supervisor-student feedback provision style. It was also discovered that demographic variables such as: sex, year of study and professional background had a slight influence on student teachers perception on teaching practice exercise, supervisors treatment, and supervisor-student feedback styles. In line to that 42 (37.5%) student-teachers’ acknowledged the concept that teaching practice is for improvement and the remaining percentages were given to factors associated to opposite dimension. It was therefore concluded that, there is a need for strengthening the teaching practice supervision exercise and specifically the collaboration between university teaching practice office and the teaching practice-host institutions should be improved so as to minimize the challenges emanating from miscommunication during the teaching practice exercise
People play crucial roles in the adaptation of their environment to satisfy their needs for creative expression, security, safety, societal identity, and spatial tendency. The manifold and everchanging human needs accentuate the dynamics of spatial behaviors that alternate in respect to loss and gain of information. This article emphasizes the idea that spatial pattern is the manifestation of spatial behavior that goes through a continuous process of feedback. The process occurs when the user decides to maintain or modify the physical appearance of the surroundings and decides to create, accept, reject, or avoid any particular event. As an example of Arab cities, this article mainly examines the Damascene built environment as a reflection of usersвЂ™ spatial behavior. The study associates Damascene built environment to the Behavior as a Spatial Search model presented by Bjorklund; including the symbolic presentations, relationship among different functional spaces, constituent architectural details, and streetscapes.