The aim of this review was to summarize the effect of high forage diets in relation heath promoting fatty acids. Fat content in the milk contributes mineral, vitamins, energy and essential fatty acids (C18:2n-6) and C18:3 n-3) to human. But, inclusion of high proportion milk and milk product especially, saturated fat in human diets is becoming questionable because of the health risk like obesity, cancer, diabetics, and cardiovascular disease. This creates negative altitude on consumers towards milk and milk product. Compromising the milk yield inclusion up to 70% of forage enhance n-3 PUFA and CLA (rumenic and vacinic acid). Studies in rat revealed that CLA (rumenic or vacenic acid) rich butter at 2% of its diet show reduction in mamary tumor and cholestrol indiuced coronary heart disease in rat. However, the contribution of the unsaturated fatty acid from milk to the total human diet is relatively low. Since for human to be effecteive it need reasonable to add 20% of its diet. Beside to this, the findings are still under animal model so further study is still needed to test its real effect on human health.
Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Gonad Maturation of Mullet (Liza Ramada) (Published)
This study was conducted to evaluate four different diets (fish oil FO, Palm oil PO, sunflower oil SO and mixed diet of three oils as 2% FO : 2%PO : 2%SO) on growth performance, body composition and gonad maturation of Liza ramada with an initial weight of 5.31±0.31g. Hundred fish were randomly distributed in twelve cement ponds with a volume of 2m3 each and fed for 120 days at a rate of 3% live body weight (BW) twice daily. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) between diets. The highest growth performance, feed utilization and hepatosomatic index were obtained with the fish fed fish oil (FO) and Mixed diets, without significance difference between them. However, the fish fed palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO) recorded less growth performance. Differences in certain fatty acid composition were detected but levels of saturated, mono-saturated and n-3 fatty acids recorded increased in each FO and mixed diets without significant differences between them. On the other hand, n-6 showed significantly increased in both palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO) groups. The essential fatty acids (EFAs): arachidonic acid (ARA), ecosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were different across treatment groups suggesting that Liza ramada can affected with different oil sources. In the second trial the mixed diet was fed to the broodstock fish in earthen ponds. The broodstock fish showed an increased in growth performance, feed efficiency, heptosomatic and gonadsomatic indices of Liza ramada. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of oil type effects, diet costs and gonad histology of Liza ramada broodstock.