Physico-Chemical, Antibacteriail Activity and Fatty Acid Composition of Oil Extracted From Sprouted Ackee Apple (Blighia sapida) (Published)
Blighia sapida seed has been reported to have some levels of toxic substances when consumed. Most of these substances can be transferred to the oil during extraction thereby increasing the health risk of the oil. Sprouted Blighia sapida seed oil was evaluated to see if the reactions that take place during germination could reduce this toxic effect and increase its industrial values. These results were obtained for the physico-chemical properties: Oil Yield (%)(15.500±0.02), Refractive index (1.4615±0.01), Specific gravity (0.9140±0.01), Acid value(mg/g)(25.10000.10), Iodine value(g/100g)(27.50100.20), Saponification value(mg/g)(225.30000.20), Peroxide value(mmol/kg)(4.24000.20) and Free fatty acid(mg/g)(oleic)( 7.07820.10) respectively. The Fatty acid composition of the oil were Palmitic Acid (C16:0)( 32.3349), Stearic Acid (C18:0)( 5.2555), Arachidic Acid(C20:0)(0.8528), Behenic Acid (C22:0)(0.6326) and Lignoceric acid(C24:0)(0.3061) as polysaturated fatty acid with abundance in Palmitic Acid respectively. The monounsaturated fatty acid were Oleic Acid (C18:1)( 45.7362), Palmitoleic Acid (C16:1)(0.7655), Erucic Acid (C22:1)(0.4601) and Linoleic Acid (C18:2)(11.6010) and Lenolenic Acid (C18:3)(0.9773) as polyunsaturated fatty acid. The antibacterial activity of the oil from Blighia sapida seed indicated that the oil is susceptible to some pathogenic organism like Escherichia Coli(4.00 0.01) and Staphylococcus aureus (2.00 0.02), but had no effect on Proteus, Pseudomonas Spp and Klebsiella pneumonia. These results indicated that the oil from sprouted Blighia sapida seed had industrial and pharmaceutical value than the raw Blighia sapida seed oil.
Comparative Study of Mineral and Fatty Acid Composition of Oil Extracted From Raw and Anaerobic Fermented Tiger Nut Seed(Cyperurs esculentum) (Published)
Comparative study of raw and anaerobic fermented tiger nut seed oil was investigated to know whether the effect of anaerobic fermentation will alter the mineral and fatty acid composition of the oil from the sample. The mineral composition observed in mg/kg for oil from raw and anaerobic fermentation tiger nut were Potassium(K)(3265.48±0.50and22851.200±0.50),Sodium(Na)(20.210±0.10 and18.750±0.10),Calcium(Ca)(5.330±0.10and6.471±0.10),Lead(Pb)(0.130±0.05and 0.101±0.05)Copper(Cu) (2.024±0.10 and 3.530±0.10), Zinc(Zn) and manganese were very significant in both while Magnessium(Mg) had 121.120±0.20 and 147.470±0.20 respectively.The fatty acid present in the oil of raw and anaerobic fermentation were: Palmitic Acid (C16:0) (17.2689 and 17.8269), Palmitoleic Acid(C16:1)(0.1568 and 0.2138), Margaric Acid (C17:1) ( 0.0834 and 0.1130), Stearic Acid (C18:0) (2.7919 and 3.1444), Oleic Acid (C18:1) (64.9437 and 64.2864), Linoleic Acid (C18:2) (13.8846 and13.3413), Lenolenic Acid (C18:3) (0.3201and 0.4372), Arachidonic Acid (C20:0)( 0.3507 and 0.3646) and Behenic Acid (C22:1)( 0.1999 and 0.2725) respectively. Anaerobic fermentation increased the saturated fatty acid and reduced the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated in the oil sample as indicated in the raw oil sample. Oil from Anaerobic fermentation is prone to deterioration and oxidative rancidity due to the level of the saturated fatty acid.