Tag Archives: Farmers

Statecraft and the Perennial Farmers: Herder Clashes in Nigeria (Published)

Farmers and Herdsmen, in sub-Saharan Africa have being coexisting and doing their vocation amicably. In northern Nigeria for instance, both of them have being using and benefiting from the nation’s ecology without much conflicts. In recent times however, this legendary mutual cooperation has soured resulting in to needless, avoidable wanton destruction of lives and properties. This paper therefore examines statecraft and the perennial farmers – herder clashes in Nigeria .the paper adopted library based documentation analysis as its major methodology since bulk of the data were sourced from secondary source. The paper revealed that:  population explosion and land hunger, governmental policies ECOWAS protocol, climate change, communication breakdown, weak punitive measures against previous offenders, as Democratization and mainstream and social media dominance among others, are some fundamental factors that generated and ignited the incessant Farmers-Herders; which caused several setbacks on the socioeconomic development of the country  such as decline in production and supply , inflation in prices of staple, destruction of lives and properties, proliferation of  small arms and light weapons, growth in refugee and displacement of persons as well as food shortage and scarcity. The paper recommends among other Robust socioeconomic and psychological education/orientation of both the farmers-herders for peaceful coexistence, governmental investments in and provisions of basic necessities/infrastructures favorable for these agriculturalists and disciplining of offenders are some of the panacea to halt the incessant clashes.

 

Keywords: Conflict, Farmers, Herders, state craft

Evaluation of Communication Support Materials Used For Agricultural Development Projects in Selected States in North Central Nigeria (Published)

Food is indispensable for the survival of every human being and for Nigeria to move away from an oil dependent economy we need to invest in agriculture. One of the ways to boost food production and other agricultural products is through Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs). ADPs Extension agents in selected North Central States effectively used communication support materials to disseminate information to less schooled adult farmers on how to improve their farming techniques. Did the farmers understand them? How effective were these materials and of what value? It is based on this premise that the researcher evaluated communication support materials used for farmers in selected states in North Central Nigeria. The researcher adopted a survey design. The study population included all the states in North Central Nigeria: Benue, Kwara, Niger, Nassarawa, Plateau and Kogi. From these six states Benue, Nassarawa and Kwara States were selected through purposive sampling technique because they are the most agriculturally endowed states. The sample size of 1500 farmers were selected from the 973,380 farmers through a combination of systematic and proportional sampling techniques from the list of the registered farmers from the states. The breakdown is as follows: Benue State– 478,060, Kwara State – 313,983, and Nassarawa State – 180,433. The major instrument used was questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated through a pilot test on 20 people in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria while the reliability of the questionnaire was established through Cronbach Alpha Analysis. The score ranged from 0.70-0.772. The data was analyzed using frequency distribution, Cross tabulation, ANOVA and Linear regressing using SPSS Software version 20.0. The linear regression analysis of the hypothesis depicts that there is no significant effect between farmers lifestyle and usage of communication and support materials among respondents (P>.0.05). Findings revealed that, majority of respondents received extension training through leaflets. The result shows that out of 1356 respondents, 1116 (86.1%) agreed that extension agents attended training very often. The study concluded that majority of farmers in selected North Central States received extension training through communication support material. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that, extension agents should continue to use communication support materials for training farmers. However, they should ensure that these communication support materials are attractive, persuasive, easy to understand and acceptable by farmers. Furthermore, the State governments in North Central States should as a matter of priority inject more funds to the Agricultural Development Projects so as to enable the ADPs achieve their mandate of improving agricultural productivity and raising the income of small-scale farmers.

Keywords: Agricultural Development, Farmers, communication, extension

Patronizing Agricultural Cooperatives: The Journey towards Zero Hunger Attainment in South-South States, Nigeria (Published)

The study focused on farmers patronizing agricultural cooperative societies as a journey towards zero hunger attainment in South-South States, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select a sample size of 144. A validated questionnaire was used to obtain data from respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze the data obtained. Results showed that the average age, farming experience, household size, farm size and annual farm income were 46 years, 11 years, 6 persons, 3 Ha and N282,638.89 respectively. The level of participation of the respondents activities in their groups was highest in payment of monthly dues and other necessary contributions (mean = 3.60) and the most benefit derived was increased human capacity development in farming (mean = 3.48). In addition, most (59.03%) of the cooperators indicated their high level of satisfaction with the groups they belong. Regression results showed that respondents derived significant (p<0.05) benefits from their belonging to cooperative groups. It was concluded that farmers were satisfied by patronizing cooperative societies as a strategy to attain zero hunger amongst households. The study recommends that there should be awareness creation for new entrants to join cooperative societies so as to accomplish zero hunger.

Keywords: Benefits, Cooperative Societies, Farmers, Participation, Satisfaction, zero hunger

Agricultural Commodities and Economic Growth in Nigeria (Published)

This study investigates the determinants of macroeconomic variables that affect agricultural production in Nigeria. Time – series data, covering the period of 1986 -2016, United States reports, were used. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression technique was fitted to the data. Result showed that corn output has a positive relationship with agricultural output. Millet, rice and palm oil also have positive relationships with total agricultural output. The individual test revealed that corn has no significant impact on agricultural output while millet has a significant impact on agricultural output within the period under study. Thus, this study recommends that there is need to improve on the agricultural practice level of farmers in Nigeria through extension education, so as to achieve food security and conserve the resource base. This should be the intensified and geared towards making farmers to become more aware and understand the consequences of use of more external inputs on their resource base, and the inherent benefits associated with the use of more internal inputs in food production. Improve agricultural production, processing and trade through increased access to resources such as land, technology (improved inputs) credit, and training.

Keywords: Farmers, Food Security, Land, Palmoil, Rice, corn, millet

Analysis of Farmers’ Accessibility to Institutional Credit: A Case Study of Akwa Ibom State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme (Published)

The recent call for economic diversification through strengthening and consolidating the agricultural sector becomes imperative for the over dependent on the oil and gas sector. The level of agribusiness activities further reveals access to credit (finance) as serious concern to farmers in order to actualize the diversification agenda. In this light, this study analysed farmers’ accessibility to institutional credit at the Akwa Ibom State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme. For the purpose of primary data collection, a questionnaire was designed and administered to each of the selected farmers in the communities. In addition, in-depth interview (IDI) was conducted with officials of the Akwa Ibom State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme. Out of the 250 copies of the questionnaire administered to the respondents, 196 copies had valid responses and were found useful for the analysis representing a response rate of 78.4 per cent, composed of 79 (40.3%) credit beneficiaries and 117 (59.7%) non-credit beneficiaries. This study employed both descriptive, inferential statistics and logistic regression model in analysing the data that were collected. The study further indicated that the farmers had relatively adequate access to land as the majority (60.8%) of the respondents owned between 1-5 hectares of land, and about 30.2 per cent owned between 6-10 hectares of land while 1.0 per cent of the respondents had more than 10 hectares of land. Farmers with large farm sizes were more inclined to borrow as 42.3 per cent of farmers with large farm size applied for credit as against 7.1 per cent for small-scale farmers. The study also revealed that the credit accessed from the AISIFCS was adequate and majority (80.1%) of the beneficiaries stated that they did not receive the actual amount of loan requested.  Also institutional credits had positive impact on agricultural productivity while age, gender, household size, membership of cooperative, and access to ICT did not significantly contribute to the likelihood of having access to credit from ASIFCS. Marital status, educational qualification, income, size of farm in hectares, distance to nearest bank in km, farming experience in years and access to extension services significantly contributed to the probability of having access to credit from the Akwa State Integrated Farmers’ Credit Scheme (AISIFCS). Therefore, the study showed that the main constraints to local farmer’s capacity in accessing institutional credits include lack of collaterals, high interest rate, high level of bureaucracy, and the mode of repayment among others.

Keywords: Accessibility, Credit Scheme, Farmers, Institutional, Integrated & Agricultural Productivity

Assessment of Cultivation Practices of Wheat and Knowledge of Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis Noxia), in Mokhotlong and Thaba Tseka Districts of Lesotho (Published)

Mokhotlong and Thaba Tseka districts are major wheat producing areas in Lesotho. However, wheat yield has been declining over the past years. The purpose of this study was to investigate farmers’ cultivation practices, knowledge and management of Russian wheat aphid as possible factors for the low yields of wheat, and the capacity of extension staff in assisting the farmers in wheat production in Mokhotlong and Thaba Tseka districts, Lesotho. Three focus group discussions organized with the help of local chiefs and extension staff members were conducted to collect qualitative data which was used to formulate structured questionnaires for the interview schedule. A total of 60 farmers and 31 extension staff were interviewed. Three factors were found to be the major determinants of low yields; farmers’ continued use of traditional cultivation methods, the use of recycled seed from a variety (Bolane) that was introduced in the early 60s in Lesotho and farmers and extension staff ignorance on the existence and impact of Russian wheat aphid in Mokhotlong and Thaba Tseka. The study recommend that research on Russian wheat aphid distribution, impact and resistance status of Bolane must be undertaken    and the Ministry of Agriculture should capacitate extension staff and farmers though training and resource allocation to adopt improved cultivation practices.

Keywords: Bolane, Extension Staff, Farmers, Mokhotlong, Russian Wheat Aphid, Thaba Tseka

Settler- Indigene Relations in Nigeria, 1920- 2014 (Published)

This study highlights the interaction between settler migrant farmers and their host societies in the Western cocoa producing areas and some food producing areas of central part of Nigeria between the 1920s and ­­­­2014. The choice of date is informed by the time of the introduction of commercial cocoa production in Western Nigeria while 2014 is the year in which the dislocation of the peace in the food producing area, occasioned by the Chibok girls kidnap saga began. Using extant literature and field data in the study areas, the paper asserts that contrary to popular generalisations in some literature that ethnicity, economic interest, cultural and religious differences have engendered conflicts among indigene-settler relations, the people in our study area have coexisted peacefully. The paper examined the geo-economic imbalance in the distribution of resources which necessitated migration; the common need for capital formation to exploit the resources; use of non-economic methods like kinship ties, ethnic affiliations, and some customary obligations have remained important indicators in the rural social and economic life. It is the observation of this paper that the rural farming societies of our investigation, though an agglomeration of different ethnic nationalities, yet maintained a symbiotic economic and social cooperation in a system-devised method of absorbing the shocks and sometimes strained relationship among them, in a participatory way.

Keywords: Farmers, Indigene, Labour, Migration, Rural, Settler

Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the use of Coping Strategy among Farmers and Herders Affected by Conflict at Giron Masa Village, Kebbi State, Nigeria (Published)

This study was conducted at Giron Masa village, located 30km from Yauri town. The study determines the Socio-economic Factors influencing the use of coping Strategy among Farmers and Herders during post-conflict situation. Simple random sampling technique was used to select one hundred (100) respondents (50 farmers and 50 herders) from the study area. Logistic regression (LR) analysis was used to ascertain the socioeconomic variables that influenced the use of the coping strategy among the farmers and herders affected by conflict. The results of the study shows that age, income, family size and farming experience were significant and thus influenced the use of POCS among farmers.  Annual income and production system influenced the use of Problem Oriented Coping Strategy (POCS) among herders. Age, farm size and farming experience were found to be significant in influencing the use of Emotion Oriented Coping Strategy (EOCS) among farmers. Specifically, years of herding experience increased the use of emotion oriented coping strategy among herders. The use of Social Support Coping Strategy (SSCS) among farmers was influenced by educational level; farm size and farming experience, while the variables are not collectively significant in influencing the use of SSCS among the herders. The research recommends the adoption of communal coping that entails the application of cooperative problem solving processes within the family and other social units dealing with stressful life events should be used as coping strategy in the event of farmer-herder conflict

Keywords: Conflict, Coping Strategy, Farmers, Herders

Loan Repayment Behavior among Member of Farmers Multipurpose Cooperative Societies in Anambra State (Published)

This study examined the loan repayment behavior of farmers multipurpose cooperative societies in Anambra State. The famers are poor and cannot raise the money needed for farming and when they obtain loan repayment is usually poor. The study specifically examined the range of amount of loan applied for, amount approved, amount disbursed and repaid by the cooperative farmers. It investigated the socioeconomic factors affecting the farmers’ credit repayment ability and ascertained major problems affecting the farmers in loan repayment using t-test statistics and a multiple econometric model of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS). Findings revealed that there is a significant difference between the amount of loan received and amount repaid by the cooperative farmers. The joint effect of the explanatory variable in the model account for 91.9% of the variations in the factors affecting the farmers’ credit repayment ability. Four coefficients (educational qualification, farm size, loan application cost, and collateral value) are significant. Age, membership duration and income of the farmers are not significant but they show a positive relationship with loan repayment. Factors affecting the farmers’ credit repayment ability are significant at 0.000 significant level. The study therefore recommends among others that cooperative societies should endeavour to educate the farmers on financial discipline and management because it has proven to significantly influence loan repayment. Lending institutions should ensure that whoever they are lending to meets a minimum threshold in asset value before loans are accessed. This will help to reduce defaulters.

Keywords: : Loan Repayment, Farmers, Multipurpose Cooperative, Nigeria

Resource-Use Efficiency of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfariaoccidentalis) Production as Aid To Poverty Alleviation in South-South Part Of Nigeria (Published)

The rural areas in Nigeria are worse hit by poverty which is a ban on the standard of living on the people. Fluted Pumpkin (TelfariaOccidentalis)  is a crop produced for the economic importance of its leaves, fruits, seeds to the citizenry. This study therefore sought to examine the Resource-Use Efficiency of Fluted Pumpkin (TelfariaOccidentalis) Production as aid to poverty alleviation in Isoko South Local Government Area, South-South part of Nigeria.  Cross-sectional data were obtained through well structure questionnaire administered to 60 fluted pumpkin farmers drawn using simple random sampling technique from the study area during the 2015 production season. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, poverty line analysis, efficiency ratio analysis, and a 3-Point Likert Scale Rating. Results showed that majority (40%) of the respondents were within the age bracket of 31>40 years, with mean age of 38.9years while 66.7% of the respondents were females. 53.3% had farming experience of 1-5years, with mean value of 4.88years. 58.3% had 1-4 persons in their household size, with mean value of 4 persons. The efficiency ratio of hired labour (0.683), quantity of seed used (0.167), quantity of herbicide used (0.109), portrayed that these resources were over-utilized. Also the efficiency ratio of family labour (1.474 ) and quantity of fertilizers used (6.087 ), showed that the farmers were inefficient in the use of these resources.The poverty level analysis indicated that 20% of the studied population was within the extremely poor group while 70% were within the moderately poor group and only 10% fell within the group of non-poor. The results also revealed the major constraints faced by farmers to include: lack of access to credit facilities, high cost of transportation, lack of storage facilities, and scarcity of viable seeds; it is therefore recommended that the government and financial institutions should provide credit  facilities to the farmers for improved yields and efficient resource-use of inputs in the production  of fluted pumpkin in the study area.

Keywords: Farmers, Fluted Pumpkin, Nigeria, Poverty analysis, Resource Use

Application of a Stochastic Frontier Production Function to the Measurement of Technical Efficiency of Commercial Poultry Egg Production in Nigeria (Published)

Some studies on poultry production in Nigeria focused on problems and prospects of poultry production, part time commercial poultry farming, technical efficiency of small scale poultry-egg production and none on the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Nigeria This study therefore examined the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a set of well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the study. First, five (5) major towns were randomly selected from the nine (9) major towns in the Local Government Area. Secondly, six (6) commercial poultry egg farmers were randomly selected from each of the five (5) major towns to make a total sample size of 30 farmers for the 2011 production cycle. Data collected were presented and analyzed using tables, frequency count, percentages and stochastic frontier production function. The stochastic frontier production function was specified and estimated, using maximum likelihood estimation. The results showed that majority of the respondents were found to be between the age range of 31-50 years old (60%), 56% of them were males, 50% of them had first leaving school certificates and 50% of them had 5-6 family members, 60% had 3-5 years of poultry rearing experience and 53% of them used hired labour for their operations; 60% of the respondents adopted the deep litter system of management. The results also revealed that the coefficients of expenditure on flock size (0.755), expenses on feed intake (0.851), expenses on medication and vaccination (0.220), expenses on labour (0.201), and cost of capital (0.562) were significant determinants of output of commercial egg production at 5% level of significance in the study area. The mean technical efficiency was 58% and ranges between 0.559 and 0.909. The sigma squared (σ2) of 0.65 for the commercial poultry farmers were statistically significant and different from zero at 5% level of significance. The variance ratio (gamma) was estimated as 0.52 for the farmers and were also significant at 5% level which implied that about 52% variations in the output of the farmers were due to the inefficiency of inputs. The study revealed that a national policy and programme  to strengthen the commercial poultry production is required in the area of finance and inputs. It can therefore be recommended that capital should  be channelled to commercial  poultry production through the provision of macro-credits and formulation of policies and programmes by the Government to direct financial institutions to grant a definite and a reasonable  proportion of loan-able funds to commercial poultry farmers. Programmes on economic production of major poultry feed ingredients like maize and soya-beans be instituted for least cost poultry feed production. Potent medicine and vaccine should be provided in sufficient quantities, easily accessible and enlightenment programme on mode of administration be embarked upon by the government to commercial poultry farmers in the study area. Exotic poultry parent stocks and fertile eggs imported should be screened and certified to be of good quality at the point of entry into the country by controlling bodies. Poultry equipment manufacturers should be encouraged by the Government with provision of credit facilities and subsidies.

Keywords: Commercial poultry eggs, Farmers, Nigeria, Technical Efficiency, stochastic frontier production

Spatial Appraisal of Problems and Prospects of Fertilizer Use for Agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area, Imo State Nigeria. (Published)

This study appraises the spatial problems and prospects of fertilizer use in agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area of Imo State. Structured questionnaires were sampled in the each villages randomly selected from the seven autonomous communities of Amaike-Mbieri, Awo Mbieri, Ezi-Mbieri, Ihitte Isi-Mbieri, Obazu Mbieri, Obi-Mbieri and Umueze-Mbieri for collection of data. The data were analysed using descriptive statistical tools of tables, charts and graphs. The outcome showed that 71.2% of the farmers do not have University Education. All the kinds of fertilizer in use in the study area contain Nitrogen with NPK 20-10-10 the most sought-after (35%). The major source of fertilizer in the study area is the open market while 54% of the farmers say they prefer the application of fertilizer NPK for replenishing lost soil nutrients. Finally, 60% of the Farmers in the study area use surface broadcast method in application of fertilizer NPK on their farms. However, some of this nitrogen compounds are washed down through surface runoffs causing pollution and eutrophication of the Ecosystems and water bodies. Government should set up research centre for Fertilizer use in Agriculture where farmers can be equipped with adequate knowledge of the best way to use fertilizer NPK while sustaining the environment.

Keywords: Farmers, Fertilizer NPK, Mbieri, Soil fertility, pollution of Ecosystem

Differential Thresholds of Farmers’ and Public Extension Agents’ Perceptions Of Benefits of Cost Sharing in Extension Service Delivery in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria. (Published)

The study was carried out in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria to assess perceived benefits of cost-sharing among farmers and public extension agents. Data was collected from a sample of 346 respondents using interview schedule/questionnaire as well as Focus Group Discussion. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage as well as Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. Majority of the farmers (61.4%) and all (100%) the public extension agents were males, middle aged, having formal education which enabled them to understand possible benefits of cost-sharing in agricultural extension service. Farmers’ and public extension agents’ perceived benefits of cost-sharing practices were observed in the areas of equity participation of stakeholders (18.4%), result orientation of scheme (14.2%), effective monitoring of project (13.9%), demand driven of extension service (12.1%) and meeting of targets of extension service delivery (10.8%), among others. There was a significant difference between Benue and Nasarawa States in terms of perceived benefits of cost-sharing practices by respondents. This was due to the higher average work experience of farmers in Benue State as opposed to their counterparts in Nasarawa State implying that the longer the work life of an individual the better exposed he is to work experiences that would enhance his sense of perception and judgment. The study recommends that farmers be encouraged towards consistency in their primary occupation of farming to improve their cognate experience while efforts are made by service providers to ensure that extension services provided for end users are demand driven and result oriented in order to achieve the objectives of extension service delivery. The need for adequate measures for effective monitoring of extension services for greater efficiency was considered necessary as it will help to encourage stakeholders to participate in cost-sharing.

Keywords: Cost sharing., Farmers, Perception, public extension agents

Operationalising Cost Sharing As A Sustainable Funding Model in Agricultural Extension Service: Farmers’ and Pubic Extension Agents’ Perception in Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out in Benue State, Nigeria to ascertain the perception of cost sharing as a sustainable funding model in agricultural extension processes among farmers and public extension agents (PEAs). Data were collected using interview schedule/questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were used for analyzing the data. A sample of 174 farmers and 42 PEAs were selected for the study using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Findings of the study indicate that majority of the farmers (62.1%) and all (100%) the public extension agents were males, married, middle aged and had formal education. Majority (56.3%) of the farmers and the PEAs (55.8%) had a high level of awareness on cost sharing. Both farmers (43.0%) and PEAs (42.9%) were of the opinion that cost-sharing is when all stakeholders contribute to facilitate the activities and  maintained that it is when benefitting farmers and government pay for extension services. Majority (82.8%) of the farmers perceived a positive impact of cost-sharing on agricultural extension service delivery if adopted, while most (61.9%) of the PEAs were indifferent about the impacts, among others. However, farmers also preferred that cost-sharing should be in the area of input provision (53.4%), while PEAs preferred advisory services (77.5%) as an area of intervention in the implementation of cost-sharing practices. The study recommends that there should be a gradual commencement of the implementation of cost-sharing practice given the high interest demonstrated by farmers as this will help to achieve the objectives of agricultural extension service. Efforts are also highly needed in the area of provision of farm inputs and advisory services to farmers in order to facilitate the adoption of cost-sharing practices.

Keywords: Agricultural Technology, Cost sharing., Farmers, Nigeria, public extension agents

Relation Analysis of International Cocoa Prices and Indonesian Cocoa Farmers’ Price after Export Tax Policy on Cocoa Beans (Published)

The government of Indonesia imposed export tax on cocoa beans since April 2010. This policy has objectives to guarantee the availability of domestic cocoa beans as raw materials for domestic processing companies at an affordable price. The aim of this paper is to analyse the relation of cocoa prices between international price and farmers’ price after export tax implementation. The method utilized in the analysis is Vector Autoregression or Vector Error Correction depending on the characteristic of the data. The results show that, in the short-run relation and the long-run relation, international price has a significant effect to domestic price. There is strong correlation between the export taxes to farmer’s price as the international price is well transmitted to the domestic price. Farmers has the highest risk. Farmer encounter the uncertainty and it cause on decreasing cocoa beans production. Lack of cocoa beans supply impacts to cocoa processing industry

Keywords: Cocoa, Export Tax, Farmers, Price, Relation

Application of a Stochastic Frontier Production Function to the Measurement of Technical Efficiency of Commercial Poultry Egg Production in Nigeria (Published)

Some studies on poultry production in Nigeria focused on problems and prospects of poultry production, part time commercial poultry farming, technical efficiency of small scale poultry-egg production and none on the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Nigeria This study therefore examined the technical efficiency of commercial poultry egg production in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a set of well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the study. First, five (5) major towns were randomly selected from the nine (9) major towns in the Local Government Area. Secondly, six (6) commercial poultry egg farmers were randomly selected from each of the five (5) major towns to make a total sample size of 30 farmers for the 2011 production cycle. Data collected were presented and analyzed using tables, frequency count, percentages and stochastic frontier production function. The stochastic frontier production function was specified and estimated, using maximum likelihood estimation. The results showed that majority of the respondents were found to be between the age range of 31-50 years old (60%), 56% of them were males, 50% of them had first leaving school certificates and 50% of them had 5-6 family members, 60% had 3-5 years of poultry rearing experience and 53% of them used hired labour for their operations; 60% of the respondents adopted the deep litter system of management. The results also revealed that the coefficients of expenditure on flock size (0.755), expenses on feed intake (0.851), expenses on medication and vaccination (0.220), expenses on labour (0.201), and cost of capital (0.562) were significant determinants of output of commercial egg production at 5% level of significance in the study area. The mean technical efficiency was 58% and ranges between 0.559 and 0.909. The sigma squared (σ2) of 0.65 for the commercial poultry farmers were statistically significant and different from zero at 5% level of significance. The variance ratio (gamma) was estimated as 0.52 for the farmers and were also significant at 5% level which implied that about 52% variations in the output of the farmers were due to the inefficiency of inputs. The study revealed that a national policy and programme  to strengthen the commercial poultry production is required in the area of finance and inputs. It can therefore be recommended that capital should  be channelled to commercial  poultry production through the provision of macro-credits and formulation of policies and programmes by the Government to direct financial institutions to grant a definite and a reasonable  proportion of loan-able funds to commercial poultry farmers. Programmes on economic production of major poultry feed ingredients like maize and soya-beans be instituted for least cost poultry feed production. Potent medicine and vaccine should be provided in sufficient quantities, easily accessible and enlightenment programme on mode of administration be embarked upon by the government to commercial poultry farmers in the study area. Exotic poultry parent stocks and fertile eggs imported should be screened and certified to be of good quality at the point of entry into the country by controlling bodies. Poultry equipment manufacturers should be encouraged by the Government with provision of credit facilities and subsidies.

Keywords: Commercial poultry eggs, Farmers, Nigeria, Technical Efficiency, stochastic frontier production

Utilization of Mass Media among Farmers in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

The study analyzed the utilization of mass media by farmers in Ikwere local government area of Rivers state, Nigeria. Specifically, it identified the available mass media in the study area, ascertained the extent of use of these mass media, identified the perceived roles of mass media, assessed the perceived effectiveness of mass media and identified the factors that affect the use of mass media in the study area. A sample of 180 farmers was obtained using multistage sampling technique. Data were elicited from the farmers using a set of structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using percentage count, mean statistic and bar chart. Results show that the farmers were still in their active ages (M = 40 years) with majority (99.1%) of them receiving formal education. It was further revealed that television, radio and mobile phone were the most available mass media in the area

Keywords: Agricultural, Farmers, Ikwere LGS, Mass Media

Challenges of Organic Farming Faced By Nepalese Farmers (Published)

Organic farming can directly contribute in the better health and environment. It may the better alternative for the problem of climate change and environmental degradation. Promotion of organic farming is necessary so the study is going to explore the challenges of organic farming faced by the Nepalese farmers. . The study was conducted in four districts: Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktpur and Dhading. Altogether, 578 organic farmers were selected purposively. Mixed method was used to collect the data. Statistical analysis was done for quantitative data and logical interpretation was done for qualitative data. The study explored the various challenges of organic farming: high investment and price of goods, low production, less selling because of the lack of knowledge among the consumers, limited market, no provision of compensation if production damaged, and lack of certification. Farmers requested to address all these problem of organic farmers to encourage the involvement for coming generation. Nepal government can study on the possible way of solution with the close interaction of organic farmers. 

Keywords: Certification, Challenges, Farmers, Nepal, Organic farming

The Contribution of Farmers Self Help Groups in Enhancing the Smallholder Maize Farmers Income in Southern Rwanda (Published)

Farmers’ Self Help Groups are inclusive of the poor and are charged with the purpose of becoming a market outlet for smallholder farmers in Rwanda. Improving farmers’ income earning capability and agricultural productivity has been an important strategy of Rwanda’s agriculture development policy. However, despite their growing importance, empirical studies on how farmers’ organizations have impacted their members’ income are limited in Rwanda. This study investigates the economic role played by farmers SHGs to their members, the maize production before and after joining the SHG, the income of these smallholder farmers, the saving effects on farm income, and the living standards situation before and after SHGs participation using the sample of 75 smallholder maize producers in Southern Rwanda. The t paired test was used to analyze the situation before and after joining the SHG in terms of Savings, Production and monthly expenses and the Chi Square test was used to test the significance of time of joining the SHG and the opening the bank accounts for savings and accessing to loans. The results revealed that the savings, the production and the monthly expenses increased after joining the farmers SHGs and the time opening of bank accounts for saving, access to loans and other banking activities are significant to time of joining the SHG. Since farmers are resource poor and that farmer Self Help Groups are constrained by various institutional, technical and investment constraints despite their potential, it is recommended that favorable policies should be geared toward smallholder agriculture in Rwanda in order to ensure the success of farmer Self Help Groups. The results show that farmer groups can be an important institution for the transformation of smallholder farming, increase productivity and incomes thereby reducing poverty. Agricultural policies in Rwanda should therefore focus more on the intensification of agriculture and farmers’ Self Help Groups and increase the market orientation of the smallholder farm sector.

Keywords: Farmers, Self Help Group, Smallholder Farmer’s Income

Comparative Assessment of Cocoa Farmers’ Knowledge and Attitude to Trainings on Good Cultural Management Practices (CMP) in Ogun and Ondo States, Nigeria (Published)

Nigeria is one of the leading cocoa producing countries in West Africa. However, since the discovery of crude oil there has been a decline in cocoa production which resulted in Nigeria losing its leading position as the foremost cocoa exporter to Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana. To revitalize the cocoa production in Nigeria series of efforts are put in place including training of farmers on improved Cultural Management Practices (CMP). This study therefore compared cocoa farmers’ knowledge and attitude to trainings on good cultural management practices in Ogun and Ondo States, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling techniques were used to select 320 cocoa farmers in the study areas. Data obtained were analysed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Result of the study showed that the mean age of the respondents was 52.8 years with 83.4% of the respondents married and 75.9% of the respondents had primary education. Most (82.8%) of the respondents were male while few (17.2%) were female in cocoa production. Most (83.40%) of the respondents harvested about 10kg/ha from their cocoa farms. The average income generated from cocoa was 44,237/kg. Cocoa farmers always got information from Cocoa Certification Agencies (59.4%), cocoa farmers association (54.4%) and radio/television (50.9%). Most (92.5%) of the respondents had wealth of knowledge in selecting suitable site for cocoa production and minimum tillage practices (98.4%). The result further revealed that majority (65.3%) of the respondents strongly agreed that they would spend more money to participate in future CMP trainings and that the training is beneficial (84.1%) hence, satisfied with it (86.2%). All the respondents affirmed that CMP training is an eye opener to a better cocoa farming practices (100%). Also, almost all the respondents (99.4%) reported that they select suitable land for cocoa production, construct nursery bed, select improved seeds variety, and slash weeds underneath cocoa trees. Above ninety percent of cocoa farmers apply fertilizer at rate of 375kg/ha, spray prescribed insecticides and fungicides, and harvest ripe cocoa pods with sharp cutlasses. Major constraints to cocoa production and CMP in the study areas are poor feeder roads (100%), irregular supply of agro-inputs (90.0%), and instability in government policy (88.4%). Result of linear regression showed a significant relationship between socio-economic and cultural management practices at p < 0.05 level of significance. However, result of the t-test analysis indicated that significant difference did not exist in the cocoa cultural management practices in Ogun and Ondo States (t = 2.42, p = 0.06). The study concludes that majority of the cocoa farmers carried out Cultural Management Practices to obtain good yield, and has positive attitude towards CMP trainings as it is highly beneficial to their cocoa farming.

Keywords: Cocoa, Cultural Management Practices, Farmers, Knowledge, Trainings, attitude