Nutrient Requirements of Livestock for Sustainable Productivity in Tropical Africa: A Review (Published)
The objective of this paper was to review nutrient requirements of farm animals in other to improve feed supply and utilization for healthy sustainable livestock productivity in tropical Africa. Farm animals require nutrients to support body maintenance, reproduction, lactation, and growth. The nutritional needs of livestock vary according to breed, age, sex, class, stage of production, performance level and weight. Physiological and environmental stressors, such as sickness and weather, can also influence nutritional requirements of farm animals. Most livestock need carbohydrates, protein, minerals, vitamins and water. Identification of nutritional need of farm animals throughout the production cycle is paramount. Feeding animals without consideration to their nutrient requirements is tantamount to wasting time and resources. Matching animal requirements to nutrient value of feeds and using body condition score to fine tune the nutritional program of farm animals is also economically advantageous. Feed, whether purchased or produced on the farm, make up a large part of the expenses incurred in livestock production. Therefore, for profitable and healthy production, proper feeding and year-round management are essential. Without proper nutrition, it is impossible to produce a high-quality livestock, wean healthy heavy animals, and develop satisfactory flock replacements. All livestock producers should have a basic understanding of animal nutrition and should be familiar with common nutrition terms. Producers must also know the nutritional requirements of the animals at different stages of life. The ideal nutrition program supports optimum production, is efficient and economical, and minimizes related problems. In order to understand the fundamentals of livestock nutrition, the farmer must first know the nutrients essential for growth, production, and reproduction.
A total of fiften (15) protein sequence of Chlamydia abortus (C abortus) were retrieved from the GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).The phyco-chemical properties of C abortus proteins were performed using protparam tool. The isoelectric point (pI), extinction coefficient (EC); instability index (II), aliphatic index (AI) and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) were also computed. The study revealed that the pI value of C abortus protein showed that some were basic (>7) nature and acidic (<7) in nature respectively. The EC and II of protein showed that some C abortus protein have better stability which might be resistance to mutation. AI for all the protein showed that only C abortus protein with accession Number WP_072667807 showed AI > 100 which indicates thermally stable. The GRAVY of all the protein were negative (hydrophilic). The amino acid composition of C abortus proteins indicated high in serine and threonine which are hydroxyl amino acid which is non reactive and can play a role in substrate recognition.. The prediction of secondary structure was performed using SOPMA. The proteins are more of random coil structure then followed by alpha helix. Phyre2 server was used to predict the 3D structure of C abortus proteins. Molecular analysis should be carry out to substantiate this findings.
Can Ebola Virus Disease Infect Domestic And Farm Animals And A Threat For Human Being Who Has Direct Contact And Consume Their Food Products?” A Review Paper (Published)
Ebola virus disease (EVD) also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe contagious disease affecting humans, non-human primates and some domestic species (e.g. pigs). While fruit bats are considered as a natural reservoir, the involvement of other species in the EBOV transmission cycle is unclear, especially for domesticated animals. However Dogs and pigs are so far the only domestic animals identified as species that can be infected with EBOV. In 2009 Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV reported to infect swine with indicated transmission to humans; and a survey in Gabon found over 30% sero prevalence for EBOV in dogs during the Ebola outbreak in 2001-2002. While infections in dogs appear to be asymptomatic, pigs experimentally infected with EBOV can develop clinical disease, depending on the virus species and possibly the age of the infected animals. In the experimental settings, pigs can transmit Zaire-Ebola virus to native pigs and macaques monkeys; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. In Africa, fruit bats are considered natural hosts and reservoirs of the Ebola virus although Ebola outbreaks have been observed in chimpanzees, gorillas, macaque monkeys and in some pigs in the Philippines and China. These latter animals, like human beings, have been considered as “accidental hosts” and not reservoirs of the Ebola virus. A fact sheet recently released by the World Health Organization (WHO) has proved helpful in this regard, revealing that the Ebola virus is transmitted to people from animals and subsequently spreads through the human population through person to person contacts. The risk of infection among humans from animals may be reduced by avoiding contact with fruit bats or monkeys etc. avoiding consumption of their raw meat and ensuring that all animal products are thoroughly cooked before consumption. Animal handlers are advised to wear gloves and other protective clothing. Significant issues about disease development remain to be resolved for EBOV. Evaluation of current human vaccine candidates or development of veterinary vaccines de novo for EBOV might need to be considered, especially if pigs or dogs are implicated in the transmission of an African species of EBOV to humans.