Tag Archives: Extrinsic Motivation

Motivation of Students for Independent Work during Training Activities (Published)

The current article discusses the question of motivation of university students for independent work, which is done during training activities. Different theories and viewpoints of specialists to the investigated matter have been included in the discussions. “Maslows’ Hierarchy of Needs Theory (1954), McClelland’s Needs Theory (1961), and “Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory” are analyzed here.Some groups of motives are determined in the organization of effective independent work, such as social motives, cognitive motives and reaction to a number of external factors organizing educational activities. A number of suggestions are given to develop motivation of students in foreign language lessons.

Keywords: Extrinsic Motivation, Intrinsic Motivation, Motivation, independent work

Motivation as Predictor of Lecturers’ Job Satisfaction: Insight from Ghanaian Technical Universities (Published)

The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of motivation on job satisfaction of lecturers in the Technical Universities of Ghana. Two research hypotheses were formulated to direct the study. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The accessible population comprised full-time lecturers and four Technical Universities. The Universities were selected through stratified random sampling technique. Purposive sampling technique was applied in selecting all the full-time lecturers. A sample of 400 lecturers was used for the study. Questionnaire was the main instrument used to elicit responses from the lecturers. The reliability coefficient of 0.74 was obtained from the pre-test. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and linear multiple regression were used to analyze the data. The findings were discussed in relation to the literature. The study established statistically significant and positive relationship between motivation and job satisfaction of lecturers. Motivation was found to have statistically significant effects on lecturers’ job satisfaction. It was recommended among others that Management of the Universities should sustain the use of motivation for lecturers. Ministry of Education needs to accelerate its efforts to make pay reward and fringe benefits more attractive to motivate lecturers and increase their satisfaction level for lecturing.

Keywords: Extrinsic Motivation, Fringe benefits, Intrinsic Motivation, Job Satisfaction, ill-motivated, pay reward


This study explored the concept of motivational strategies and how it applies to the teaching of primary school mathematics. A number of motivational theories were discussed in the study with regards to how primary school learners can be motivated to want to learn mathematics and such theories included the goal theory, achievement theory, the competency theory, the self-efficacy theory and the general interest theory among others. A number of motivational strategies were also discussed and these included the following: conveying confidence, conveying high aspirations, giving comments, and valuing learners’ tasks. The results of this study indicate that while most teachers concurred that it is important to motivate learners to learn mathematics through the use of motivational teaching strategies, the majority of the same teachers do not seem to be regularly using motivational strategies in the teaching of mathematics. This study also showed that two of the major reasons why primary school mathematics teachers do not regularly use motivational strategies in their teaching are high workloads and large class sizes in their schools. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection.

Keywords: Extrinsic Motivation, Intrinsic Motivation, Motivation, Motivational Strategies, Motivational Theories