Tag Archives: Extraction

Impact of Okra Gum Encapsulation on Some Physicochemical Attributes of Yam Flour (Published)

Okra gum samples were prepared by two methods – The Conventional Method and by encapsulation. For encapsulation, okra gum solution made from 239.4g okra pod was thoroughly mixed with 303.4g of yam flour and then dried for 12 hours at 60oC using cabinet dryer. The dried product (encapsulated gum) was marked – CG1. CG1 was repeatedly employed to cumulatively carry gum samples extracted from okra pods of known weights. This way, CG2 to CG5 were made. The weights and bulk densities of each of CG1 to CG5 were recorded. The viscosity, water holding capacity (WHC) as well as moisture content (MC) of CG5 was compared with those of pure okra gum and gum Arabic. Infrared spectroscopy was done on the pure okra gum at 0.5mm path. Results showed that the 303.4g yam flour, encapsulating gum extract from a total of 904.4g okra pod weighed 217g. In other results, pure gum, encapsulated gum and gum Arabic had 0.245, 0.317 and 1.22Nm-2 respectively for viscosity. For (WHC), they had 12, 12.60 and 16.00%., MC): 10, 7 and 46%. The infrared scan on pure okra gum showed strong C-CL stretching vibration, a difference from the work of other researchers.

Keywords: Commercialization, Composition Encapsulation, Extraction, Okra Gum


Unlike synthetic drugs plants have different phytoconstituents which can act collectively by which helminths cannot resist them or there could be active constituent(s) in the plant with superior potency. The aim of this study is to investigate the anthemelmintic activity of both crude and fractions of Plumbago zeylanica root extract. Crude extract was subjected to column chromatography from which nine pure compounds were isolated. Chloroform crude extracts recorded less paralysis and death time than ethanolic crude extracts. In addition, the isolated compounds were higher in their anthelmintic activity than crude extracts at almost all concentrations. Both crude and fractions paralyse and kill the worms with less time than that of the positive control and even less than 10 fold especially at low concentrations in case of chloroform extracts.

Keywords: Extraction, In vitro test, Plumbago Zeylanica L, anthelmintic activity


The increase in the use of motor vehicles has resulted to generation of large quantity of used lubricating engine oil which is being disposed improperly, thereby leading to environmental pollution. This work therefore investigated solvent extraction process for recycling of used lubricating engine oil. Three solvents: 1-butanol, 2-propanol and mixtures of 1-butanol-ethanol were considered. Each solvent was used to segregate impurities in the form of sludge at different extraction factors considered.The performances of the solvents were investigated by determination of Percent Sludge Removal and Percent Oil Loss. The investigation revealed that 1-butanol produced the best extraction performance.

Keywords: Contact time, Extraction, Oil loss, Recycling, Sludge