Extraction, Isolation and Characterization of Mannitol from aerial part of Striga hermonthica Del (Published)
Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth is a common hemi-parasitic plant growing in a variety of food crops like maize, millet, rice and sorghum roots. It has many medicinal uses include abortifacient, dermatosis, leprosy, ulcer, pneumonia, jaundice and antibacterial activities. The plant material was extracted and concentrated under reduced pressure. Bioassay guided isolation was done by chromatographic methods. Compound coded “003” was isolated as white amorphous substance from combined hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. Spectral analysis was carried out to characterize the isolated compound. The proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectrum of isolated compound 003 displayed seven chemical shifts; δ H 4.31ppm, δ H 3.38 ppm, δ H 3.61 ppm, δ H 4.39 ppm, δ H 3.46 ppm, δ H 4.12 ppm and δ H 3.55 ppm. This also showed that there are seven different types of protons in the compound. Interpretation of the spectrum also revealed that signal of alcoholic protons of OH were observed downfield compared with the signal of protons directly attached to carbons. The Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C-NMR) spectrum gave three peak signals at δ C 64.3, 71.9 and 70.3 ppm corresponding to C1/C6, C2/C5 and C3/C4 respectively. Based on the comparison of the spectra of the isolated compound with reported spectral data in the literature, the chemical structure of the isolated compound 003 was deduced and identified as Mannitol. The chemical structure was also confirmed by 1H-1H Correlation Spectroscopy (COSY), Hetero-nuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and Hetero-nuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC) spectra.
Okra gum samples were prepared by two methods – The Conventional Method and by encapsulation. For encapsulation, okra gum solution made from 239.4g okra pod was thoroughly mixed with 303.4g of yam flour and then dried for 12 hours at 60oC using cabinet dryer. The dried product (encapsulated gum) was marked – CG1. CG1 was repeatedly employed to cumulatively carry gum samples extracted from okra pods of known weights. This way, CG2 to CG5 were made. The weights and bulk densities of each of CG1 to CG5 were recorded. The viscosity, water holding capacity (WHC) as well as moisture content (MC) of CG5 was compared with those of pure okra gum and gum Arabic. Infrared spectroscopy was done on the pure okra gum at 0.5mm path. Results showed that the 303.4g yam flour, encapsulating gum extract from a total of 904.4g okra pod weighed 217g. In other results, pure gum, encapsulated gum and gum Arabic had 0.245, 0.317 and 1.22Nm-2 respectively for viscosity. For (WHC), they had 12, 12.60 and 16.00%., MC): 10, 7 and 46%. The infrared scan on pure okra gum showed strong C-CL stretching vibration, a difference from the work of other researchers.
IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF FRACTIONS FROM PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA L (FAMILY- PLUMBAGINNACEAE) ROOT EXTRACT (Published)
Unlike synthetic drugs plants have different phytoconstituents which can act collectively by which helminths cannot resist them or there could be active constituent(s) in the plant with superior potency. The aim of this study is to investigate the anthemelmintic activity of both crude and fractions of Plumbago zeylanica root extract. Crude extract was subjected to column chromatography from which nine pure compounds were isolated. Chloroform crude extracts recorded less paralysis and death time than ethanolic crude extracts. In addition, the isolated compounds were higher in their anthelmintic activity than crude extracts at almost all concentrations. Both crude and fractions paralyse and kill the worms with less time than that of the positive control and even less than 10 fold especially at low concentrations in case of chloroform extracts.
The increase in the use of motor vehicles has resulted to generation of large quantity of used lubricating engine oil which is being disposed improperly, thereby leading to environmental pollution. This work therefore investigated solvent extraction process for recycling of used lubricating engine oil. Three solvents: 1-butanol, 2-propanol and mixtures of 1-butanol-ethanol were considered. Each solvent was used to segregate impurities in the form of sludge at different extraction factors considered.The performances of the solvents were investigated by determination of Percent Sludge Removal and Percent Oil Loss. The investigation revealed that 1-butanol produced the best extraction performance.