Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Activity of Neem Seed Oil (Azadirachta Indica) On Bacteria Isolates (Published)
Antibacterial activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil extract was investigated using microbial growth inhibition zone. The neem seed oil was obtained by the cold extraction method using ethanol as an organic solvent of which 42ml of oil was obtained from 70g of neem seeds, with 40g (57%) of residue. Oil extracted was screened for its antibacterial properties and phytochemical components. The test organisms used were Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi had the highest zones of inhibition while Escherichia coli had the least zone of inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The Phytochemical screening of the sample revealed the presence of Tannin, Alkaloid and Hydrogen cyanide.
FLAVOUR EXTRACTION FROM MONODORA MYRISTICA AND TETRAPLEURA TETRAPTERA AND PRODUCTION OF FLAVOURED POPCORN FROM THE EXTRACT (Published)
Monodora myristica and Tetrapleura tetraptera are cherished in many Nigerian dishes. However, these spices are still of low industrial and commercial value, hence the need to incorporate them into new food products. The ground samples of both spices were evaluated for proximate composition and sugar concentrations (Sucrose, fructose, and glucose) of T.tetraptera. The proximate composition of M.myristica, was found to be 3.48±0.01% moisture, 4.52±0.07% ash, 47.09±0.33% fat, 8.38±0.09% crude fibre, 27.57±0.10% crude protein, and 8.96±0.02% carbohydrate corresponding values for T.tetraptera were found to be 6.0±0.02% moisture, 4.90±0.03% ash, 24.33±0.05% fat, 3.30±0.12% crude fibre, 18.69±0.19% crude protein, and 42.78±0.01% carbohydrate. The T.tetraptera was also found to have appreciable concentrations of the sucrose, fructose and glucose sugars. The relative abundance of oil, hence, essential oil, justifies the use of the spices as sources of flavourings. Both ground spice samples were extracted separately with water and ethanol. The flavour extracts were used to season popcorn and the acceptability evaluated using sugar flavoured popcorn as control. The water extracts of both spices were preferred compared to their ethanol extracts. The results obtained confirm that flavouring agents can be derived from M.myristica and T.tetraptera for industrial and commercial use.
ANTISICKLING ACTIVITY OF EREMOMASTAX POLYSPERMA AND ITS EFFECTS ON SERUM LIPID AND PROTEIN PROFILES OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS (Published)
Sickle cell anaemia is a major problem of the developing world. The search for antisickling agent is of particular interest since plant bioactive agents are said to be of medicinal significance. In this study the antisiskling serum lipid and protein profiles of ethanolic extract of Eremomastax polysperma were performed using standard experimental procedures. The result obtained revealed that the extract effectively inhibited sickling in vitro. There was a persistent increase in antisickling potential of the extract on a time dependent manner, with the highest percentage sickling inhibition of 66.7 % at the 180th Mins. This was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than 36.0 % obtained with the group administered with vehicle. Similarly, the extract affected the serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol significantly (p < 0.05) when compared with the control group. Also, the serum low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL- cholesterol) was significantly lower in the extract test groups. This aided the reduction of the ratio of bad to good cholesterol as typified by the lower ratio of LDL/HDL- cholesterol in the experimental tested group than the control. Though the total protein levels of the tested groups were lower than those in the control group, this reduction was not significant to extent of assuming toxicity at the tested doses.