Competence and Performance of Agricultural Extension Agents in Increasing Pig Farmers’ Performance in Timor-Leste (Published)
This research aims to identify the competence and performance of agricultural extension workers to improve the performance of pig farmers and analyze the factors that affect the competence and performance of agricultural extension workers in Timor-Leste. The research started from January to October 2019 in seven districts in Timor-Leste. Total respondents in this research consisted of 135 agricultural extension workers using simple random sampling and 340 pig farmers determined by the purposive sampling method. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to identify the characteristics of agricultural extensions and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis to determine the influence between variables and their supporting factors. The results showed that the characteristics of the extensions (t = 2.69; α = 0.05), competence (t = 3.11; α = 0.05), the motivation (t = 2.11; α = 0.05), and self-reliance, (t = 2.51; α = 0.05) had a significant effect on agricultural extensions’ performance. Characteristics of the extensions (t = 0.35, α = 0.05), competence (t = 0.35; α = 0.05), motivation (t = 0.35, α = 0.05), and self-reliance (t = 0.35, α = 0.05) has an indirect effect on pig farmers’ performance. Meanwhile, agricultural extension performance directly affects farmers’ performance (t=3.74, =0.05). This research concluded that the competence and performance of the agricultural extensions affected pig farmers’ performance in Timor-Leste.
Citation:Joao Americo, I Nyman Suparta, Ni Wayan Tatik Inggriati, Budi Rahayu Tanama Putri (2021) Competence and Performance of Agricultural Extension Agents in Increasing Pig Farmers’ Performance in Timor-Leste, International Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Studies, Vol.8, No.5, pp.17-28
Evaluation of Communication Support Materials Used For Agricultural Development Projects in Selected States in North Central Nigeria (Published)
Food is indispensable for the survival of every human being and for Nigeria to move away from an oil dependent economy we need to invest in agriculture. One of the ways to boost food production and other agricultural products is through Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs). ADPs Extension agents in selected North Central States effectively used communication support materials to disseminate information to less schooled adult farmers on how to improve their farming techniques. Did the farmers understand them? How effective were these materials and of what value? It is based on this premise that the researcher evaluated communication support materials used for farmers in selected states in North Central Nigeria. The researcher adopted a survey design. The study population included all the states in North Central Nigeria: Benue, Kwara, Niger, Nassarawa, Plateau and Kogi. From these six states Benue, Nassarawa and Kwara States were selected through purposive sampling technique because they are the most agriculturally endowed states. The sample size of 1500 farmers were selected from the 973,380 farmers through a combination of systematic and proportional sampling techniques from the list of the registered farmers from the states. The breakdown is as follows: Benue State– 478,060, Kwara State – 313,983, and Nassarawa State – 180,433. The major instrument used was questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated through a pilot test on 20 people in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria while the reliability of the questionnaire was established through Cronbach Alpha Analysis. The score ranged from 0.70-0.772. The data was analyzed using frequency distribution, Cross tabulation, ANOVA and Linear regressing using SPSS Software version 20.0. The linear regression analysis of the hypothesis depicts that there is no significant effect between farmers lifestyle and usage of communication and support materials among respondents (P>.0.05). Findings revealed that, majority of respondents received extension training through leaflets. The result shows that out of 1356 respondents, 1116 (86.1%) agreed that extension agents attended training very often. The study concluded that majority of farmers in selected North Central States received extension training through communication support material. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that, extension agents should continue to use communication support materials for training farmers. However, they should ensure that these communication support materials are attractive, persuasive, easy to understand and acceptable by farmers. Furthermore, the State governments in North Central States should as a matter of priority inject more funds to the Agricultural Development Projects so as to enable the ADPs achieve their mandate of improving agricultural productivity and raising the income of small-scale farmers.
Influence of Characteristics and Perception on Usage of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) By Selected Extension Agents in Northern Nigeria (Published)
This paper presents the results of investigation into the influence of the perception of Village Extension Agents (VEAs)’ on usage of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in three selected States Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) of Nigeria. Two hundred and four (204) VEAs were sampled as respondents for the study. With aid of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) the data were analyzed and the descriptive statistics were used to present the results. Results of Multiple Linear Regression analysis revealed that usage of ICT was statistically and positively significant on: income (0.039*), sex (0.007**), accessibility to ICT (0.000***) and perception on custom/tradition (0.021*) and perception on availability of infrastructural facilities (0.047*). These variables, by implication, are factors that influenced the usage of ICT by the VEAs in the study areas.
Dairying is viable for smallholders but suffers from high transaction costs hence the need for cooperatives that aid farmers to access various services. Agricultural extension disseminates knowledge, physical inputs, credit and builds farmer’ capacity for collecting bargaining and marketing their produce. A descriptive study design was adopted, 200 participants were selected using multi stratified random sampling. Secondary and primary data were collected using a semis-structured checklist and structured questionnaire respectively. Mean productivities for farmers who used or didn’t use extension services were compared using an independent samples t-test statistics. Dairy farmers who accessed business training, artificial insemination, improved fodder and concentrates increased milk production. Access to extension services explained 25.5% of the variations in milk production per cow per day. Dairy farmers are operating profitably with average monthly revenue ($215) versus expenditure ($58).interventions aimed at supporting dairy farmers to increase milk production should prioritize cooperatives and extension services.
Assessment of Sources of Agricultural Information on Adoption of Maize Production Technologies in Ardo-Kola local Government Area, Taraba state, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the sources of agricultural information on adoption of maize production technologies in Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling techniques were used to select respondents for the study. In the first stage, Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) block in the local government area is known as Iware block were considered for the study. Stage two, all the cell in the extension block were considered for the study. Stage three, it involve systematic sampling of twenty (20) respondents from each of the eight (8) cells were selected by taking respondents randomly. In all, a total of one hundred and sixty respondents as mummarized and 150 filled questionnaires were returned. Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were used to analyse the information collected from the area. The result showed that many (67.33%) of the sampled farmers sourced their information from extension agents. The result of the socio-economic characteristics of maize framers revealed that 39.30% of the respondents falls within 36 – 50 years of age, most of them are on active and productive. Regression result shows that the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.89, implying that (89%) of the variations in sources of Agricultural Information in the adoption of maize technologies were explained by the variables in the model. The result revealed that eight out of the twelve variables estimated positive and economic, economentive and statistically significant at 5 level. The study recommends that provision of information resources center in the rural area is of paramount important in order to facilitate easy access to agricultural information among farmers in the study area.
Field Experience of Agricultural Communication Methods and Attitudes toward the New Trends in Extension in Syria (Published)
The role of agricultural extension has always been a hot topic and under debate for all agricultural specialists, simply because of its vital role in implementing the agricultural policies and rural development, because it is the linkage between the rural community and the organizations involved in rural development and agricultural sector in both farming and non-farming perspectives.
This research is divided to two basic sections; each is divided to two sub-categories as follows:
- The first part is dedicated to communication methods
- The second part is dedicated to new trends in global economy in terms of its influence on agriculture and rural development.
The main findings of this research are: Extension staff lacks to sufficient training qualitatively and quantitatively with social and economic constraints, which makes a reform of the current system is a must to overcome insufficiencies in different areas.
Agricultural Extension Services Using a Participatory Approach in Vegetable Growing Areas in Suriname (Published)
Extension Officers from the Agricultural Extension Service in Suriname, charged with communication, face difficulties in transferring information to farmers. Therefore, a mixed method study was carried out to explore possibilities to improve communication strategies and to facilitate the introduction of novelties and good practices. From August 1, 2016-February 15, 2017 388 small-scale vegetable farmers participated in a survey gauging their knowledge and practices. In addition, a participatory farmers’ experiment was conducted with 15 farmers to convey information about the application of Biochar, an innovative soil-improving compound. Results revealed that extension officers lack relevant specific agricultural knowledge. Important information on sustainable agriculture did not reach most farmers, although the participatory approach provided the means for information exchange and allowed conveying the needed information. The experiment showed that practical sessions on a regular basis with bi-directional information interchange with farmers as conducted in this research can be an effective method to introduce novelties and good practices.
Relevance of Experiential Learning in the Training of Extension Agents in Nigeria: A Proposal (Published)
Extension agents have been described as essential backbones for extension services. The efficiency of the activities of extension agents as multi-purpose staff is determined by the quality of the training received. In other words, for extension agents to excel in service delivery opportunities must be given for training and retraining in the current trends and issues experientially in extension work. It is against this background that this paper proposes the kind and the nature of training for Nigerian extension workers. To this end, the paper examines the nature of extension work, role and qualities of extension agents, overview of extension agents training in Nigeria with a view to determining the kind of training that will facilitate their work as multi-purpose change agents. The paper concludes that curriculum of Adult and Non-formal Education in Nigerian higher institution of learning should reflect current trends in extension services and be made relevant to the real life situation to enable extension agents discharge their responsibilities as multi-purpose workers. Also opportunities for retraining through seminars, conferences, workshops, etc should be made available to practising extension workers.
The introduction of social media and web 2.0 applications has opened up a platform that agricultural extension officer’s, farmers, agricultural institutions and non-governmental institutions utilize to disseminate and exchange agricultural information. The objective of the study was to assess the use of social media as a source of agricultural information with reference to farmers in Kesses District. The study adopted a descriptive survey and the major data collection tools were interviews from farmers who use social media platforms. The study purposively sampled farmers in Kesses District and data was analyzed both descriptively. From the analysis, it is evident that there is immense need for agricultural information among farmers in Kesses District. The study reveals that farmers in Kesses District have diverse source of agricultural information for example the internet, social media and extension services. Majority of farmers approach the use of social media in agricultural information seeking with a positive attitude, pointing to the assumption that social media is largely beneficial and convenient as a source of agricultural information. Among the most common challenges faced include poor network access, power outages, and costly charges when accessing the internet. This study recommends that information centers can be established in Kesses District whereby farmers can obtain agricultural information online and that social media should be fully utilized to provide; feedback, complement extension programs, access local and international markets and complement communication campaigns whose goal is to bring about agricultural development.
The Knowledge Level of Farmers toward Agricultural Extension in Lublin Province – Poland (Published)
This article aims to identify the level of knowledge to farmers in Lublin province toward the agricultural extension in general, and to identify the farmers’ knowledge level in each item of the knowledge level scale, and find a correlation relationship between level of knowledge to farmers and independent variables included in this article. The results showed that the level of knowledge to farmers towards agricultural extension in general is (medium) in Lublin province. The results also showed level of knowledge to farmers high in the following items(agricultural extension helps farmers on how to eliminate the insects and diseases that affect the crops, agricultural extension helps farmers on the proper use of pesticides). The results showed also there is significant correlation between knowledge level of farmers and variables (sources information), while results did not show a significant correlation between knowledge level and independent variables (age, education, size of farm, average yields).
Impact of Agricultural Extension on Food Security among Small Scale Farmers in Wareng District, Kenya (Published)
Agricultural extension is one of the effective tools in attaining the millennium development goals related to the reduction and eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in developing countries like Kenya. Despite that extension services were practiced for many years in Kenya, it is evident that these services have declined rapidly. This paper aims to find out the impact of extension on food security among small scale farmers in Wareng District. A survey of 120 smallholder farmers was used in the study. Though there was difference between farmers in different wealth categories, the mean difference is larger at the present compared to the past. Generally extension have played role in improving the living status of farmers in the study area. However, agricultural extension services seems to have an impact on improving food security in the country and increase the wealth gap between farming households and also replace local landraces with improved varieties. The study recommends that the Kenyan government should develop a new and expanded policy agenda for agricultural extension and communication for rural development focusing national attention on food security and income generation of the rural poor.
Impact of Agricultural Extension on Food Security among Small Scale Farmers in Wareng District, Kenya (Published)
Agricultural extension is one of the effective tools in attaining the millennium development goals related to the reduction and eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in developing countries like Kenya. Despite that extension services were practiced for many years in Kenya, it is evident that these services have declined rapidly. This paper aims to find out the impact of extension on food security among small scale farmers in Wareng District. A survey of 120 smallholder farmers was used in the study. Though there was difference between farmers in different wealth categories, the mean difference is larger at the present compared to the past. Generally extension have played role in improving the living status of farmers in the study area. However, agricultural extension services seems to have an impact on improving food security in the country and increase the wealth gap between farming households and also replace local landraces with improved varieties. The study recommends that the Kenyan government should develop a new and expanded policy agenda for agricultural extension and communication for rural development focusing national attention on food security and income generation of the rural poor