Settlements Adjoining Tin Mines in Plateau State Are Exposed to Higher Concentrations of Heavy Metals (Published)
Heavy metals are present in the environment naturally at low levels which may not be harmful to humans. Human activities such as dumping of waste, smelting, waste incineration, vehicle exhausts, agricultural waste, fertilizers, mining activities and so on has increased the levels of heavy metals in the environment. Among all the factors that increases the concentration of heavy metals, mining activity is considered as one of the most influential anthropogenic activities which results in changes in landscapes, destruction of habitats, and contamination of soil, ambient air and water, and degradation of land resources. The presence of heavy metals in the environment. Artisanal tin mining activity has continued to increase in communities in Jos plateau state. This activity may be exposing heavy metals that may be harmful to humans and animals. The study aims to check the concentration of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) in soil, ambient air, vegetables, fish, and water samples from the mining site. The metals were also analysed in soil and air in a community close to the mining site.
Citation: Okonkwo F.O., Danladi B., Jonathan B., Ibrahim A.A., Nvau J.B. (2022) Settlements Adjoining Tin Mines in Plateau State Are Exposed to Higher Concentrations of Heavy Metals, International Journal of Biochemistry, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology Studies, Vol.7, No.1, pp.16-24
Assessment of Excess Life Time Cancer Risk from Gamma Radiation Exposure Rate in Two Tertiary Institutions in Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)
The present study assessed the excess lifetime cancer risk associated with gamma radiation exposure rate in two tertiary institutions in Bayelsa State, Nigeria using Radalert 100xTM, nuclear radiation monitor which uses a Geiger Mueller tube to detect radiation emissions. The studied campuses of Niger Delta University (NDU) and Federal University of Otuoke (FUO) were delineated into eleven (11) and Ten (10) sections respectively. Results of the measurements showed that the highest exposure rate of 0.05mR/h (2.66msvy-1) was recorded at NDUIP against 0.04mR/h (2.128msvy–1) of FUOHL. Excess lifetime cancer risk analysis showed that at NDUIP, it was 1.866 x 10-3 and 1.500 x 10-3 at FUOHL. In calculated mean values for exposure rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Equivalent (AEDE) and excess lifetime cancer rate (ELCR) it was; 0.030mR/h (1.596mSvy-1), 238.06nGy/h, 0.290mSvly and 1.020 x 10-3 respectively for NDU and 0.02mR/h (1.064mSvy-1), 204.45 nGy/h, 0.250mSvy-1 and 0.880 x 10-3 respectively in FUO. Compared with world average value (WAV) of 0.013mRlh (0.6916msvy-1) for ER, 59.00nGy/h for ADR, 0.070mSvy-1 for AEDE and 0.290 x 10-3 for ELCR respectively. The calculated dose to organ showed that the testes have the highest organ dose of 0.087mSvy-1 in NDU and 0.070mSvy-1 in FUO respectively. The obtained mean values in both campuses exceed the WAV. However, the obtained results do not impose alarming danger, but effort should be made for control measures in compliance with ALARA Principle.
Lung cancer has been linked to exposure to the naturally occurring ionizing radiation, radon gas (22Rn). Radon is ubiquitous in our environment. However, the level of concentration of this gas is influenced by the geological, geographical, meteorological conditions of a particular environment. The indoor radon concentration is also influenced by factors such as air-conditioning system, ventilation, age of building etc. In this study, the level of indoor radon was measured in 55 offices located within Abia State University, Uturu in South Eastern Nigeria using a Corentium digital radon detector. Uturu is well known for vegetation with high granitic and sedimentary rocks. Offices were chosen to vary between those that are furnished with air conditioning systems and those that are without such facility. Measurements were taken between December 2017 to June 2018. The result of the measurements showed that the indoor radon concentration for all the offices varied between. This value is lower than the intervention level of recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The annual effective dose for the offices ranged from which is below the recommended ICRP intervention level of. Hence, there is low risk of adverse health effect and lung cancer induction to the staff of Abia State University.
The influence of partial discharge exposure time on the thermally estimated depolarization and on the natural relaxation in polymer dielectrics is described. The polypropylene and polyethylene terephtalate foils were the object of investigations. Study of partial discharge plays an important role in the aging and the rupturing process of solid and mixed insulation systems. The PD analysis is a predictive test which indicates insulation degradation in advance, which may lead to the failure of the system, and it is performed under normal operating conditions.
English language is incorporated as a core module into the Saudi national curriculum. Students study and learn English 7 years and, during this period of time, they are assigned 13 English textbooks. However, they leave school knowing about 1000 words. This paper sheds light on factors that contribute to little vocabulary uptake by Saudi students when they leave high school. These factors are is that the vocabulary teaching methodology which is ” non-incremental ” and students are not repeatedly exposed to learnt vocabulary. Consequently, students do not fully master the English vocabulary which simply results in students not being able to retain the vocabulary in their minds. Recommendations that are promoted in this study include consulting the corpora to ensure that textbooks are provided with 5000 most frequent words, incorporating suitable graded readers into the curriculum, employing an effective methodology for vocabulary teaching and, most importantly, sufficient exposure to the target vocabulary items.