Tag Archives: Export

Does The Export-Led Growth Hypothesis Hold For Nigeria? Empirics from Toda-Yamamoto Granger-Causality Framework (Published)

This study empirically analyzed the relationship between export and economic growth. Specifically, the study examined the validity of the Export-Led Growth Hypothesis in Nigeria employing the Toda-Yamamoto Granger Causality framework. The result shows that there is unidirectional causality running from export to economic growth. This implies that the causality running from export to economic growth is the strongest, revealing that export-led growth hypothesis holds for Nigeria. This suggests that encouraging export is necessary in stimulating growth. It is therefore imperative for government to put policies in place to stimulate the production in the non-oil sectors of the economy. This would assist in encouraging exports and discourage imports.

Keywords: Export, Export-led growth hypothesis, Toda-Yamamoto Granger Causality Framework, economic growth, import

The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment and Import, Export on the Economic Growth of Pakistan: An Empirical Study (Published)

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI), export (EXPO) and import (IMP) in the economic growth of Pakistan from 1990 to 2015. Design/methodology/approach: The link of foreign direct investment (FDI), export (EXPO) and import(IMP) with economic growth is measured through multiple regression model. Foreign direct investment (FDI), export (EXPO) and import (IMP) treated as regrassors and gross domestic product (GDP) treated as regressand in this model.Eviews software used to analyze the annual time series data from 1990 to 2015. Findings: According to the findings, there is a negative and insignificant association between foreign direct investment (FDI) and GDP while there is significant and positive relationship found of export (EXPO) and import (IMP) with GDP. Originality/value: The empirical findings of this research play a vital role for policy maker of Pakistan in formulation of FDI and trade policies.

Keywords: Export, Foreign Direct Investment, GDP, economic growth, import

Export Product and Market Diversification and Its Implications on the Performance of Eritrea’s Foreign Trade (Published)

Low level of export product diversification and high market concentration are characteristic features of the export sector of many Sub Saharan African (SSA) countries. This situation coupled with limited intra African trade has contributed to deficits in trade balance and overall poor foreign trade performance which has been of concern to policy makers in these countries. In January 2012, the African Union (AU) Summit of African Heads of State and Government endorsed the theme of ‘Boosting Intra-African trade‘ and called on Member States, Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and the AU Commission to promote industrial development with a view to diversify economies and moving away from heavy reliance on traditional primary commodities for export. As the result, efforts have been made by many African countries to diversify exports along intensive or extensive margin. The intensive margin is related with expansion focussed more on current export products, while the extensive margin deals with creating new export products or new markets. In this paper data from Ministry of Trade and Industry (MOTI) on value of exports and imports of Eritrea for the period 2000 to 2015 are used to analyze Eritrea’s foreign trade performance and the trends in trade balance. Value of Eritrean exports by commodity group and destinations for 2000, 2003, 2009 and 2014 are used to compute Normalized Harfindahl-Hirshman Index (NHHI) of export product and market diversification in COMESA region and the rest of the world. The results show, for markets, the NHHI was 0.199 in 2000, 0.123 in 2003, 0.601 in 2009 and 0.354 in 2014 indicating high market concentration of exports in 2009 compared to the other years. For products, the NHHI was 0.169 in 2009 and 0.89 in 2014 indicating high export product concentration index in 2014 explained by the dominance of new export products from the mining sector namely copper ores and concentrates, gold compounds and silver ores and concentrates. This shows that Eritrea has not made any significant breakthrough in export diversification and is yet to diversify into the higher value added activities. Above all, export sector performance has been low and the study suggests that appropriate trade policy and strategy is needed to enhance regional and global trade, expand export markets and diversify its export products through value addition and further processing of domestic and foreign raw materials

Keywords: Eritrea, Export, Market Concentration, Product Diversification, Regional Integration

Economic Transformation: Reliance to Small Businesses and Export Orientation (Published)

Uzbekistan as a low-middle-income country with a population of 30 million, has seen stable economic progress (with the growth of average 8 percent per year) since 2004 and extreme poverty has declined from 27 percent in 2000 to 15 percent in 2012. The government has set an ambitious goal for the country—to join the group of upper-middle-income countries by 2030. This study discusses the main challenges of the structural transformations that the economy will face to achieve this objective.

Keywords: Export, Growth, Small Business, Transformation, Uzbekistan, import

Jordan’s Export Import Scenario During 2000- 2014 (Published)

In light of the challenges set by the economic openness and foreign trade to the Jordanian economy, especially through the increasing competition for Jordanian products of goods and services with regional and global countries, it is necessary to activating the role of the Jordanian trade policy in order to make greater contribution to enhancing the competitiveness of the national economy. The objective of this research paper is to address the impact of import and export of Jordon on Gross Domestic Product growth (GDP) during the period 2000-2014 as the GDP at market price determines the import, export and openness of Jordan. Linear Regression analysis has been applied with GDP at market price and Import, export, trade and trade openness. The analysis shows that there is a statistically significant impact of export and import of goods and services, and on GDP growth of the economy. On the other hand the analysis shows no significant effect of trade openness on GDP growth rate due to trade deficit.

Keywords: Export, GDP, Jordan, import, trade openness


No country can exist in isolation as an island, trade wise. This is because, it cannot own all it needs or requires. It must therefore engage in some form of trade with other countries to buy what it needs and also, sell what it has. This way, it can maintain an economic balance. International Trade allows us to expand our markets for both goods and services that otherwise may not have been available to us. It is for this reason that a person in Nigeria can pick between a Japanese, German or American product such as, electronics or cars. Because of international trade, there is greater competition to provide cheaper products to the consumer so as to attract more trade relationships. International trading partners or organizations conduct business today without having to meet or speak with each other. Transactional, uncertainties about the method of trade or risk of loss could be increased if there is inadequate knowledge of the payment options that are available. As a result of such uncertainties, the likelihood of trade could therefore be reduced reduced. Because of awareness of the increasing globalization of trade, private sector development programs have looked for ways to implement trade promotion initiatives, through import and export programs, production of high-value crops for export, creation of business development centers and other trade related programs which require the participants to have a good understanding of some of the most critical aspects of trade such as the nature of trade and getting paid. As new technologies and advancements in communications are improving trade logistics and increasing speed and facilitation of transactions, businesses are finding new opportunities and new ways to operate. Today, payments can be made through opening of financial letters of credit, by email, commitments for foreign exchange can be made over the telephone and the purchase of large quantity of produce and their shipping costs can be charged to credit cards. Despite these new advancements most payment transactions still follow basic rules to reduce risk of loss to the barest minimum. Exporters must therefore offer their customers attractive sale terms supported by competitive payment methods to succeed in the new global market and to win sales against foreign competitors. As getting paid in full and on time is the primary goal for each export sale, an appropriate payment method must be chosen carefully to minimize the payment risk while also accommodating the needs of the buyer to get his goods at the cheapest possible rates.

Keywords: Export, Regulations., import, international trade payments


This paper tried to investigate the impact of foreign debt on growth in Bangladesh. The annual data series over the period 1972-2010 has been used. The study has been made by using the ARDL (Auto- Regressive Distributive Lag model) model to check the relationship of growth and debt. According findings there is a significant adverse effect of debt on growth in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh External debt service is a burden for its nation and it makes the GDP slows down. This study recommended that Bangladesh should find out any option of debt cancellation and must increase human development and more infrastructure development. It is also recommended that debt management should be effective and fair, and Exports, FDI and Remittances are helpful for the growth of Bangladesh.

Keywords: ARDL, Export, FDI, Remittance, cointegration test and unit Root, foreign debt

Indian handicraft industry and exports: An economic analysis (Review Completed - Accepted)

India is one among the culturally rich countries in the world. The country is fortunate enough to possess some highly skilled artisans. They have increased the fame of Indian handicrafts around the globe. The Indian handicrafts industry is highly labour intensive, cottage based and decentralized industry. It plays a significant & important role in the country’s economy. The crafts of India are diverse, rich in history and religion. The aesthetics of each state in India reflect the influence of different empires. Throughout centuries, crafts have been rooted as a culture and tradition within communities of India. Indian handicraft earns well from its exports and also the subject for global exhibitions representing India.

Keywords: Export, Foreign Exchange, Global, Handicrafts


Vertical price transmission between wheat and flour markets in Kazakhstan has been analyzed using monthly data during the period 2000-2010. Officials applied a wide variety of policies in response to global wheat price increases, often causing adverse and unintended effects on regional domestic wheat and flour prices. Overall, short-run policies aimed especially at mitigating wheat and flour prices were unsuccessful, causing greater instability and uncertainty in domestic market. The results confirm that price transmission between wheat and flour switched over the period. The PMG model was performed separately with the two regimes, and indicated that price transmission significantly altered under regime changes. Although overall coefficient differences in the two regimes are modest, the results across regions have different patterns in depicting huge differences in coefficients and magnitude. Moreover, The Granger causality test implies that the global wheat price is a good determinant of price differences across oblasts (regions)

Keywords: Divergence, Export, Kazakhstan, Price Transmission, Wheat Production


To develop an innovative technique to apply retail marketing and export of grape improvement techniques to a complete supply chain from farm to consumer. Design/ methodology/approach – Action research based on a Andhra Pradesh case study involving Post harvest loss in grapes for export market. Findings – Export market highlights significant opportunities to improve fruits supply chain performance, export perspective, profitability and relationships. Originality value – Drawing on both primary and secondary data, the paper examines how increasing demand and marketing costs, wastage impact on grape grower returns. Development of supply chain improvement methodology.

Keywords: Export, Grape, Market Channels, Retail market, Supply Chain, Value Chain