Tag Archives: Exploratory Factor Analysis

Nexus between Students’, Teachers’ and School System Effectiveness: Construction and Factorial Validity of a Measuring Instrument (Published)

This study explored the nexus between teachers’, students’, and school system effectiveness in Cross River State, following a factorial research design. One null hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Convenient sampling technique aided in selecting a sample of 271 principals and 329 teachers from a population of 271 principals and 4,336 teachers respectively. “Teachers’, Students’ and School System Effectiveness Scale (TSSSES)” was constructed. The validity of the instrument was established through Factor analyses (EFA and CFA) with Promax rotation and eigenvalues greater than one. Cronbach Alpha yielded reliability coefficients of .982, .983, .930, and .941 obtained for teachers’, students’, school system effectiveness, and the overall instrument. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was employed and revealed a coefficient of .960 providing sufficient evidence to conduct factor analysis. The confirmatory factor model fit determined by RMSEA (.068), CFI (.935), TLI (.931), and SRMR (.029) all indicated a good model fit for accepting the proposed model. The null hypothesis was tested at .05 level of significance using Path analysis. All the computations and analyses were aided using MS-EXCEL v2016, Stata v15, SPSS v23, and Amos v23. Findings from the study revealed, among others that, there is a significant direct and indirect parsimonious nexus between teachers’ effectiveness, students’ effectiveness, and school system effectiveness. It was recommended that the government at all levels should provide funds and supply public schools with good school plants such as buildings, laboratories, libraries and teaching aids towards promoting effectiveness.

Keywords: Exploratory Factor Analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, factorial validity, school system effectiveness, students’ effectiveness, teachers’ effectiveness

Construction and Validation of a Five-Dimensional Celebrity Endorsement Scale: Introducing the Pater Model (Published)

Research has shown that the use of celebrity endorsers brings many positive effects including a positive brand attitude, building brand awareness, creating positive feelings towards the ad and increased purchase intention for the brand. However, the process of choosing the right celebrity for the brand is not easy. It is important for the companies to choose an effective celebrity as their brand ambassador. The purpose of the present study is to construct and validate a scale that the marketing managers can use to select an effective celebrity endorser for their products/brands. Through a survey of 692 respondents in India who are exposed to celebrity endorsements for various products/brands, a five-dimensional scale measuring various attributes of a celebrity endorser is revealed through exploratory factor analysis. The scale is empirically tested for unidimensionality, reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity, using confirmatory factor analysis. The resultant validated instrument comprises of five dimensions of celebrity endorsers including attractiveness, trustworthiness, expertise, popularity and relevance. Thus, the present study presents a new model – PATER model of celebrity endorsements, defining the important attributes that should be considered in making a choice of the celebrity endorser.

Keywords: Celebrity, Exploratory Factor Analysis, PATER model., celebrity endorsement scale, celebrity endorsements, confirmatory factor analysis

Impact of Celebrity Endorsements on Consumers’ Ad Perception: A Study Of Indian Consumers (Published)

Numerous researches have proved empirically the effectiveness and the positive influence of celebrity endorsements in advertising. The present study attempts to find out the impact of celebrity endorsements on consumers’ ad perception through a survey of 336 respondents in India. The three-dimensional scale proposed by Roobina Ohanian (1990) has been used for the purpose. Thus, the present study considers three attributes of celebrity endorsements as suggested by Ohanian – attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise. The study also attempts to find out the individual impact of these dimensions on consumers’ ad perception. Exploratory factor analysis was used to reconfirm the factor structure. The model used was empirically tested for unidimensionality, reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity, using confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to find out the impact of celebrity endorsements on consumers’ ad perception. Results revealed that celebrity endorsements have a significant impact on consumers’ ad perception. Further, attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise, all were found to have a significant impact on ad perception.

Keywords: Ad Perception, Celebrity, Endorser, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modeling, confirmatory factor analysis